Alyson Cole, Eri Eguchi, Magda Hughes, Sarah Lusznat, Diane Nicholls, Helen Szirtes, Maureen Teulier
Katy McAdam, Joel Adams, Heather Bateman, Emma Harris
First edition published 1998 as International Dictionary of Food and Cooking Reprinted 1999
Second edition published 2004 as A Cook’s Dictionary This paperback edition published 2005
A & C Black Publishers Ltd 37 Soho Square, London W1D 3QZ
© Charles Sinclair 1998 © Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 2004 © A & C Black Publishers Ltd 2005
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publishers.
A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library.
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Text processed and typeset by A & C Black Printed and bound in Italy by Legoprint
The language of English cuisine is unusual in that it uses many words of foreign origin, often in their original spelling. The purpose of this dictionary is to give short definitions of these words so that both the practising chef and the amateur enthusiast, the gastronome and the student may quickly determine the meaning. It is not a recipe book or a repertoire, but it does give the ingredients of classic and well-known dishes, together with a brief summary of the cooking processes. A picture of a chef’s hat indicates dishes that the professional or amateur cook could, after a little experimentation, roughly reproduce.
As in all dictionaries, the compiler has had to be selective in the words chosen for inclusion. Even so, the dictionary lists over 24,000 words, of which very few are not in current use somewhere in the English-speaking world. Some entries have been included for historical reasons and the browser will find much of interest. Classic dishes, ingredients, cooking processes, cooking implements and equipment, descriptions of function and details of service are included as well as scientific, botanical, medical, technological, hygienic and nutritional terms. Many single words appertaining to the catering industry from the countries of the European Union are translated, and the dictionary is of use in translating menu items not included. Drinks, wines and spirits are not included except where they are used as flavourings in food and food preparation.
All words are listed in strict alphabetical order, ignoring spaces or hyphens. Thus comes after
after . Numbers come before letters, so E-numbers such as
and . Accented characters are assumed to follow the unaccented characters which they resemble. Thus
, for example.
, for example.
The names of many items in the French repertoire have been taken over wholesale into the English language. For example,
is known as
, often retaining the French acute accent, and for this reason – and to avoid making the entries too repetitious – this type of entry is listed in reverse order of the words in the dictionary. Thus
would appear under the heading
; other examples are and . Similar examples occur with whole classes of French names such as
(soup), , etc. Phrases from French and other European languages beginning with
, , etc. are also listed in reverse order:
b. An unglazed earthenware cooking pot in two symmetrical halves which when put together resembles a ball with two flat sides and a long handle. Used for cooking chestnuts and vegetables without water either in the oven or on top of the stove. Can be shaken and turned over for even cooking.
c. Kidneys or poussins, split, flattened, grilled and served with sauce diable
d. France Strongly flavoured with a selection of Worcestershire and Tabasco sauces, mustard, cayenne pepper and vinegar. Also called
England, France A reduction of chopped shallots, white wine, vinegar,
cayenne pepper and mignonette pepper simmered with demi-glace, strained and
seasoned. Served with fried or grilled fish or meat. Also called
Mexico, Spain Devilled, hot and spicy
The country or region of origin of words or phrases, if important or not obvious from the definition, is given immediately after the entry. Where a dish is of some regional origin within a country, the region will usually be indicated in the text, whereas the name of the country will be given after the entry:
England A shortcrust pastry incorporating an amount of dried vine fruits equal in weight to the fat, often used for meat or bird pies (NOTE: Figgy is the West Country term for dried vine fruits)
Similarly, where a country is contained within a larger grouping such as Central Europe or West Africa, the text will indicate the country of origin. This style is only used where there are relatively few entries for the country. An exception is made for the original four kingdoms which made up the British Isles: these are treated as separate countries, i.e. England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.
Terms from French and other cuisines which are also used in English cookery are labelled England, France, for example.
In some of the entries, outline recipes are given together with quantities of key ingredients. The usual method of giving quantities is to give the relative proportions by weight in brackets after the list of ingredients. Thus for example
is defined as ‘Flour, butter, caster sugar and eggs (2:1:3:5) made up…’ This could be 4 oz of flour, 2 oz of butter, 6 oz of caster sugar and 5 eggs (recalling that a standard egg weighs 2 oz or 60g), or alternatively in metric measure, 24g of flour, 12g of butter and 36g of caster sugar to each egg.
All cooking temperatures are given in °C (degrees centigrade or Celsius). Equivalents in other units (°F or gas mark) can be found in any reasonable recipe book.
The transliterations used from the Greek, Russian, Southeast Asian, Chinese, etc. languages are those adopted in the English translations of the original dishes and terms. Different authorities give different transliterations and, where several are in common use for the same dish, they are all given in their correct alphabetical order, referring back or forwards to the main entry. Chinese terms are transliterated in a variety of ways from either Cantonese or Mandarin according to the source of the entry. Accents indicating tones are not shown for Chinese transliterations, hence they give only a very rough approximation of the spoken word.
Every compiler of a dictionary is indebted to so many written sources that it would be impossible to list them all. Most of the extant dictionaries and encyclopedias of food have been consulted and many hundreds of cookbooks trawled. Quite a few errors in the published literature have been spotted and corrected but it is inevitable that some will not have been detected and it is hoped that correspondents will point these out.
I am eternally indebted to those persons who first inspired me to undertake this work and to those who have given so freely of their time to correct the spellings and definitions of foreign terms. In chronological order, these are Gareth Burgess, at that time Head of the Catering and Hospitality Department of City College, Manchester, whose encouragement and practical help were given freely when it was most needed, and my agent, Chelsey Fox, whose efforts on my behalf were most welcome. The publisher of the first edition, Peter Collin, was a tower of strength and his continuous guidance, help and assistance eased the long path from first to last draft. Faye Carney, the editor for the second edition, and her staff have been extremely helpful and Faye Carney in particular has made many suggestions for improving the dictionary. Lecturing staff and former lecturing staff at the City College, Manchester, in particular Gordon Fotheringham, Mary Cork and Anthony Fallon, have been unstinting in giving me the benefit of their knowledge and experience.
I wish to pay tribute to those students and friends at UMIST and from all over the world who have corrected the entries in their respective mother tongues. Without their help the errors in this dictionary would have been legion; as it is, the ones that remain are solely my responsibility.
In alphabetical order of surname, they are:
Norhafizah Abdullah, Lee Abrams, Cornelia Allen, Christine Biermann, Bao-Dong Chen, Jan Cilliers, George Devarkos, Rosa Maria Dominguez, Tom Dyskowska, Amer El-Hamouz, Claudia Aguilar Garcia, Vipa Jayranaiwachira, Dilys Jones, Brahim and Mrs H. Khalfaoui, Jiri Klemes, Claudia Konscaq, Joan and Bjorn Kristiansen, Asher Kyperstock, Gen Larssen, Nityamo Lian, Emma Marigliano, Ferda Mavituna, David Miller, Gunnar Munksgaard, Mehdi Nemati, Claire O’Beirne, Severino Pandiella, Megan Sinclair, Amita Sitomurni (Adji), David Webb
And finally to my good lady bed companion, Pamela Davis, for whose tolerance and support over the many years that it took to compile, check and type this dictionary I owe an irredeemable debt of gratitude.
° deg degree centigrade (Celsius)
deg degree Fahrenheit
e.g. for example esp. especially f form (in botanical
names) g gram GM gas mark
i.e. that is to say kg kilogram
lb m mm oz spp. subsp.
x > < pound weight metre millimetre ounce species subspecies (in botanical
names) variety (in botanical
names) botanical cross greater than less than
AA See arachidonic acid aachar Indonesia, South Asia Shredded
cabbage and other vegetables. See also acar aahaar Nepal Food aal Netherlands Eel Aal Germany Eel Aalquappe Germany Eel pout Aalsuppe Germany Eel soup aam South Asia Ripe mango aamchur South Asia A flavouring similar made
from unripe mango. See also amchoor aam ka achar South Asia A type of mango pickle. Halved unripe mangoes are mixed with fenugreek, turmeric, asafoetida, dried red chillies and salt, allowed to rest, then covered with warm mustard oil and kept
warm until matured. aara South Asia Wholewheat flour aardappel Netherlands Potato aardbei Netherlands Strawberry aarey South Asia A semi-hard, scalded-curd,
rindless cheese similar to Gouda, made in India from buffalo milk abacate Portugal Avocado abacaxi Portugal Pineapple abadejo Spain Fresh codfish abaissage France The process of rolling out pastry, etc. abaisse France Thinly rolled out pastry used as a base for other foods abaisser France To roll out
abalone A bivalve mollusc, Haliotis tuberculata, and other species of the genus Haliotis, found in warm sea water worldwide. It is larger than the oyster (up to 13 cm). The edible part is the foot; the frilly mantle is discarded. Abalone may be eaten raw if very young, but normally must be tenderized before being braised or sautéed lightly (less than 1 minute). See also blacklip abalone, greenlip abalone, paua, ormer, mutton fish. Also called sea ormer, sea ear, earshell
abalone mushroom Oyster mushroom
abats France Offal, internal organs and other edible parts of an animal from its extremities
abatte France A thick, broad, double-edged knife used to flatten meat
abattis France Poultry offal or giblets
abattis à la bourguignonne France Poultry giblets, excluding livers, which are reserved, are fried in butter with chopped onions and added flour, before being cooked with red wine, stock, bouquet garni and garlic in the oven. The mixture is then drained and placed in a clean pan with fried diced bacon, cooked button onions, the raw sliced livers and the strained reduced cooking liquor, and finished.
abattis aux navets France As abattis à la bourguignonne, but omitting red wine from the stock and small turned pieces of turnip sautéed in butter added with the other ingredients at the final stage
abattis chipolata France As abattis à la bourguignonne, but with white wine replacing red and with grilled chipolata sausage, cooked chestnuts and fried diced salt belly of pork added at the final stage
abattis de volaille aux champignons France Poultry giblets are cut in pieces, browned in butter, and cooked in a moderate oven with flour, stock, seasoning, skinned tomatoes and bouquet garni for 1 hour. Mushrooms are then added and cooking continues until everything is tender. The cooking liquor is thickened and the dish is served with chopped parsley.
abattis printanier France As abattis à la bourguignonne, but garnished à la printanière with the raw livers replacing the diced bacon and button onions
abattoir A slaughter house, a place where live food animals are killed, desanguinated, gutted, skinned and prepared for sale to the trade
abba Sri Lanka Black mustard seed abbacchio Italy 1. Milk-fed lamb 2. Young
abboccato Italy Slightly sweet. Used of wine.
abborre Sweden Perch
abbrühen Germany To scald
abbrustolito Italy Toasted
abelmosk See abelmusk
abelmusk A seed of a plant of the marrow family, Hibiscus abelmoschus, which has a musk-like flavour. Also called abelmosk
Aberdeen Angus A breed of prime, Scottish beef cattle renowned for the flavour, texture and tenderness of its meat (NOTE: Because of lax English law, the amount of meat advertised as Aberdeen Angus sold, far exceeds the number of cattle raised for slaughter.)
Aberdeen buttery Scotland A yeast-raised croissant made from a knocked-back strong flour and water dough, interleaved with a mixture of butter and lard (2:1) with a flour fat ratio of (4:3) using the rough puff pastry method with 3 threefold turns. The dough is cut in ovals, allowed to prove and baked at 200°C for 20 to 25 minutes.
Aberdeen crulla Scotland A sweet, deep-fried cake made from a stiff dough of creamed butter and sugar, eggs and flour, rolled into rectangles, each rectangle partially cut into three lengths, these plaited, deep-fried, drained and sprinkled with sugar
Aberdeen fillet Scotland A single, lightly smoked, unskinned fillet of haddock noted for its use in Arnold Bennett omelette. Also called smoked fillet
Aberdeen nips Scotland Cooked smoked haddock and egg yolk , blended into a hot béchamel sauce, served on fried bread or toast and garnished with parsley and paprika
Aberdeen preserved apples Scotland Peeled and cored hard eating apples are completely submerged in buttermilk for 2 days. The apples are then removed, rinsed and put in a cold sugar syrup made from water, sugar and peeled chopped ginger root (16:8:1). The syrup is slowly heated to a simmer and the apples are cooked until just soft. They are then bottled with the syrup and ginger and will keep for several months. About 2 litres of syrup per kg of apples are required.
Aberdeen roll Scotland Equal quantities of beef, bacon and onion are minced and mixed with rolled oats (equal to one third the weight of the beef), flavoured with mustard and Worcestershire sauce and brought together with beaten egg. This mixture is then packed in a tin with a foil cover, and baked in the oven in a bain-marie at 180°C for an hour. It may then be eaten hot immediately or, if to be eaten cold, soaked while hot in as much beef stock as it will absorb, cooled in the refrigerator, turned out and sliced.
Aberdeen rowies Scotland A type of croissant made from a yeast-raised strong dough in the manner of puff pastry interleaved with butter mixed with a little lard using two triple folds, made into rounds, proven a second time and baked at 200°C
Aberdeen sausage Scotland A slicing sausage (about 30 cm long by 10 cm diameter) made from 2 parts minced beef, 1 part fat bacon and 1 part fine oatmeal with spices and seasoning. The mixture is wrapped in a cloth and boiled. After unwrapping it is cooled and glazed or coated with breadcrumbs. (NOTE: Some sources give it as being made from minced mutton.)
Aberdeen sole Scotland Witch sole, a flatfish similar to the lemon sole
Aberffrau cakes Wales Small cakes made from flour, butter and caster sugar (3:2:1) made up by the creaming method, baked for 15 minutes at 190°C in greased deep scallop shells and sprinkled with sugar
Abernethy biscuit Scotland A Scottish caraway-flavoured sweet biscuit (NOTE: Named after Dr John Abernethy (1764– 1831) of Bart’s Hospital.)
Abgesottener Austria An acid-curdled cheese made from skimmed cows’ milk, cooked to produce a soft, golden yellow, round cheese weighing between 0.2 and 1 kg. Contains 70% water, 10% fat and 16% protein.
A.B. Goods United States Sweets of the gum, jelly and marshmallow type (NOTE: The origin of the term is unknown.)
abgusht Central Asia An Iranian dish generally of browned meat and onions with beans, fruit, vegetables and flavourings, simmered very slowly for several hours in a slow cooker or otherwise. It may be thick or thin and served as two courses or one. Typical flavourings are tomato purée, limu omani, turmeric or lemon juice. (NOTE: Literally ‘water of the meat’.)
abgushte miveh Central Asia An abgusht made with cubed lean lamb or beef stew meat, plus bones if available, simmered in water with a limu omani. After 90 minutes the bones and limu omani are removed and onions browned in ghee with turmeric are added, together with dried apricots and peaches and pitted prunes. All are then
simmered for a further 30 minutes. Before serving, sugar and lemon juice are added to taste.
abi See abiu
abish East Africa An Ethiopian dish of minced beef fried with chopped onions, garlic, tomatoes and grated ginger, and brought together with beaten egg. Turmeric, chopped parsley, butter and grated goats’ cheese are added and the mixture used to stuff peppers or potatoes or the like.
abiu A bright yellow, round fruit with white sweet caramel-flavoured flesh from a South American tree, Pouteria caimito, now grown commercially in Florida and Australia. It can only be used when fully ripe.
abji l’amid Turkey Potato soup flavoured with lemon juice
abklären Germany To clarify, to clear
abkochen Germany To blanch
ablémamu West Africa A thickening agent
from Ghana made by grinding dry-roasted
maize to a powder
abóbora Portugal Pumpkin
abodabo Philippines A method of cooking meat by frying pieces with garlic until browned then adding a little stock and vinegar to make a sauce
abon Indonesia A method of preserving meat, in which the meat is cooked in water until it is tender and all the water has evaporated, at which point the flesh is shredded and deep-fried until crisp
aborinha Portugal Courgette
aboyeur France The person responsible for shouting out the customer’s order to the various kitchen departments (NOTE: Literally ‘barker’.)
abraysha kabaub Central Asia A dessert from Afghanistan of lightly beaten eggs. The beaten eggs (about one egg per person) are poured through a moving funnel or using the fingers into hot fat so as to make a lacy open-textured omelette. This is cooked on both sides, drained, soaked in a lemon-flavoured heavy sugar syrup, rolled up and cut in slices.
abricot France Apricot abricots à la parisienne France Halved
apricots poached in vanilla-flavoured syrup, cooled, reformed around vanilla ice cream, placed on a large flat macaroon, covered in a
cone shape with vanilla-flavoured crème chantilly and sprinkled with fine hazelnut praline
abricots à la royale France Halved apricots poached in vanilla-flavoured syrup, placed in tartlet moulds, filled with kirsch-flavoured jelly and cooled to set. When demoulded, the apricot halves are placed around the top of a genoese ring, that has been cooked to the soft-ball stage and glazed with redcurrant jelly. The centre of ring is filled with chopped anisette-flavoured jelly.
abricots Bourdaloue France Halved apricots poached in vanilla-flavoured syrup, placed on frangipane cream, covered with same, sprinkled with crushed macaroons and glazed quickly. The dish may be made up in a baked pastry flan or a timbale, or contained in a ring of dessert rice or genoise coated with apricot jam.
abricots Colbert France Poached apricots with the stones removed, filled with dessert rice, panéed and deep-fried, and served with apricot sauce
abricots Condé France Apricots poached in sugar syrup, arranged on a ring of dessert rice mixed with diced crystallized fruits macerated in kirsch, the whole decorated with crystallized fruits and coated with a kirsch-flavoured apricot syrup
abricots Cussy France The flat side of a soft macaroon covered with a finely cut salpicon of fruit mixed with apricot purée, half a poached apricot placed on top, the whole coated with Italian meringue, dried in the oven without colour and served with kirsch-flavoured apricot sauce
abricots gratinés France Halved apricots poached in sugar syrup, placed on a 2-cmthick layer of sweetened apple purée or dessert semolina, covered with royal icing praline, dredged with icing sugar and placed in a moderate oven to colour the praline
abricots meringués France Halves of poached apricot placed on top of a layer of dessert rice, covered with meringue and decorated with same, dredged with icing sugar, coloured in a warm oven and served with a garnish of redcurrant and apricot jams
abricots mireille France Peeled and halved ripe apricots, mixed with skinned apricot kernels, sprinkled with sugar and cooled to 0°C. Prior to serving, sprinkled with kirsch, covered with vanilla-flavoured whipped cream and decorated with crystallized flowers.
abricots sultane France A ring-baked genoese stuck to a base of short pastry with apricot jam, the outside coated and top decorated with meringue, baked to a colour, the centre filled with dessert rice mixed with frangipane cream and chopped pistachios, the filling covered with poached apricots and sprinkled with chopped pistachios
abrikoos Netherlands Apricot abrikos (plural abrikosi) Russia Apricot
Abruzzese, all’ Italy In the style of Abruzzo,
i.e. with green or red peppers abschäumen Germany To skim absorption method A method of cooking rice.
The exact amount of water needed to cook the rice without leaving free water is placed, with the rice, in a heavy pan with a tight fitting lid. The pan is placed on a heat source for some time then removed to allow the rice to dry out. Precise proportions and times depend on the rice type. (NOTE: Rice cooked in this way is also known as steamed rice.)
abulón Spain Abalone
abura Japan Oil
abura-age Japan Soya bean pouches made by deep-frying slices of strained and pressed bean curd and splitting them open from one side to form pouches which may be stuffed
abura-kiri Japan A type of colander which fits inside a receptacle. Used for draining oil from fried food.
abutilon A plant of the marrow family, Abutilon esculentum, whose leaves are used in the same way as spinach. Also called raughi
acacia flower fritters Flower fritters
acacia gum See gum arabic
açafrão Portugal Saffron
açafrão-da-índia Portugal Turmeric
acajou Cashew nut
Acanthosicyos horrida Botanical name Nara
acar Indonesia, South Asia Shredded cabbage, carrots, cauliflower and other vegetables parboiled in spiced vinegar with turmeric and left to mature for a week. Also called aachar, achar, achards, atjar
acar bening Indonesia A mixed-vegetable sweet pickle, containing an assortment of cucumber, onion, pineapple, green pepper and tomato in vinegar, water, brown sugar and salt
acar ikan Southeast Asia The Malaysian version is a sweet-and-sour cold dish made from suitable whole fish, fried in oil until brown, then cooked in vinegar, water, brown sugar and a fried pounded spice mixture (chillies, ginger, onions, garlic, turmeric and macadamia nuts), decorated with slices of onion and chicken and served cold. The Indonesian version is similar but with the addition of lemon grass, laos, bay leaves and lime leaves to the pounded spice mixture and with shallots, spring onions and tomatoes added towards the end.
acarje Burma An appetizer made from a processed mixture of black-eyed beans and dried shrimps, made into balls, fried in oil and served with a spicy shrimp sauce
acar kuning Southeast Asia A highly spiced mixed-vegetable dish which can be served hot or cold. Onions, carrots, French beans, cauliflower, sweet peppers and cucumber, all cut to the size of a quartered French bean, are fried progressively in oil in the order given, with a fried spice mixture of pounded shallots, garlic, candlenuts, turmeric, ginger and red chillies. Water and vinegar are added progressively, and sugar, mustard and cucumber last of all. The mixture is cooked until al dente.
acar timun Malaysia A vegetable pickle made from salted and drained cucumber heated gently in vinegar, water, brown sugar and tomato sauce and mixed with a fried pounded spice mixture of garlic, chillies, turmeric and ginger
accartocciato Italy Twisted or wrapped, e.g. in spirals
accelerated freeze-drying Freeze-drying in which the rate of temperature drop between 0 and –5°C is very rapid, thus preventing the growth of ice crystals which would disrupt the cells and destroy the texture of the food, and in which heat is supplied to the food whilst under high vacuum and at a low temperature to remove the free and combined water
acciughe Italy Salted anchovies (NOTE: The singular is acciuga. Fresh anchovies are alici.)
acciughe alla carabiniera Italy Anchovies with potato salad
acciughe alla contadina Italy Anchovy salad with capers, onions and olives
acciughe in salsa verde Italy Anchovies in green sauce, made by alternating in a jar layers of drained anchovies with a mixture of chopped parsley, garlic, red chillies and white of bread soaked in vinegar. The layers are covered with olive oil. The finished dish is refrigerated until required.
acciughe marinate Italy Cleaned and filleted fresh anchovies marinated in olive oil, lemon juice, garlic, parsley, red chillies and seasoning for at least 4 hours
acciughe ripiene al forno Italy A dish made with cleaned fresh anchovies with heads and tails off and backbone removed leaving two fillets joined kipper-style. Two anchovies are put together like a sandwich, skin side out, with a filling of chopped herbs, garlic, pine nuts or walnuts and olive oil. The ‘sandwich’ is sprinkled with breadcrumbs and olive oil and baked for 10 minutes in a 220°C oven.
accompaniments Items offered separately with a main dish of food
accra Caribbean A yeasted doughnut mixture containing pounded salt cod and chillies, deep-fried and eaten hot with floats
acedera Spain Sorrel aceite Spain Oil aceituna Spain Olive aceitunas rellenas Spain Stuffed olives (e.g.
acelga Spain Spinach beet
acepipes variados Portugal Assorted hors d’oeuvres
acerola The large dark cherry-like fruit of a tree Malpighia glabra, originating in Brazil but now grown in the Caribbean and Australia. It is the richest natural source of vitamin C, and primarily used as a health food. Also called Brazilian cherry, Barbados cherry, West Indian cherry
Acer saccharum Botanical name Sugar maple tree
acescence The slight vinegar smell of wine and fortified wine that has undergone some acetification particularly through being aged
in wood. Not necessarily unpleasant.
acesulfame K See acesulfame potassium
acesulfame potassium An artificial sweetener, roughly 150 times as sweet as sucrose, used in canned foods, soft drinks and table top sugar substitutes. Also called acesulfame K
acetic acid The acid contained in vinegar which at 3.5% concentration will ensure the stability of pickles, etc. It is obtained by biological oxidation of alcohol in wine, ale and other fermented beverages. Very cheap vinegars are made from a chemically
produced acetic acid. See also E260
acetini Italy Pickles
aceto Italy Vinegar
Acetobacter Any of a group of microorganisms associated with rot and browning in apples, but more importantly used for the production of vinegar from wines and ales by oxidation of alcohol to acetic acid
aceto balsamico Italy Balsamic vinegar
aceto-dolce Italy 1. Sweetened vinegar (sometimes with honey as the sweetener) 2. Pickles prepared with sweetened vinegar
acetoglyceride A fat containing one or more acetic acid side chains instead of the normal longer-chain fatty acids, thus giving a much lower melting point. It is used in the
compounding of shortenings.
acetosa Italy Garden sorrel
acetosella Italy Wood sorrel
acha West Africa A hardy cereal plant. See
achar Shredded cabbage and other vegetables. See also acar
achards France, South Asia A macédoine of vegetables preserved in vinegar with spices. Escoffier gives mustard, Alexander Dumas suggested salt, saffron, chilli pepper and ginger root. See also acar
achee Vegetable used in Caribbean cooking. See also akee
achiar Southeast Asia A bamboo pickle made from vinegar and young green bamboo shoots
Achillea millefolium Botanical name Yarrow
achiote Annatto seed
Achras sapota Botanical name Sapodilla
achtarmige poliep Netherlands Octopus
achtfüssiger Tintenfisch Germany Octopus
acid A substance containing an excess of hydrogen ions when compared with pure water, which contains equal amounts of hydrogen ions (acid forming) and hydroxyl ions (alkali forming). This excess causes the characteristic sour taste response. See also acidity, alkali, alkalinity
acid brilliant green BS A synthetic green food colouring which maintains its colour in acid conditions. See also E142
acid calcium phosphate The acid ingredient in some baking powders
acid cherry A cherry, Prunus cerasus, that is much smaller than the sweet cherry, and prized for jam making and culinary use. The two well-known varieties are the Morello and the Montmorency. Also called sour cherry, pie cherry
acidification The process of adding acids to, or causing acids to be produced in, foods for preservation – as in pickles, sauerkraut, soused herrings, mayonnaise, etc. The usual acids are acetic, citric and lactic. Benzoic acid is effective at low concentrations.
acidify, to To add an acid (e.g. lemon juice, vinegar or a permitted additive) to a mixture to reduce its pH to below 7. Also called acidulate, to
acidity Acidity is a measure of the strength of an acid measured on the scale of pH which goes from 1 (very acid) through 2 (acidity of lemon juice), 3 (apple juice) to 7 (neither acid nor alkaline), the pH of pure water. pH values greater than 7 refer to alkalis. Very few food-spoiling organisms will grow at a pH equal to or less than 2.
acidless orange A type of sweet orange rarely found in Europe or North America. Grown mainly in Egypt and Brazil, it has very low acid levels and is highly appreciated where grown. Some believe it to have special therapeutic and prophylactic properties. It is not suitable for processing. Also called succari orange, sugar orange
acido Italy Acid, pickled, sour, sharp
acidophilus milk Milk soured with a pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus at 37°C to give a lactic acid content of 0.6 to 0.8%. It is refreshing and easily digested and considered to be a health food.
acid potassium tartrate See cream of tartar acidulate, to To acidify acidulated cream Cream to which lemon
juice is added in the proportions of 1 to 8 acini Italy Tiny pasta shapes similar to rice, used for soups. Also called acini de pepe
acini de pepe See acini
acitron A candied cactus, Echino cactus grandis from Mexico. Used as an ingredient of a meat stuffing.
ackara West Africa A Gambian christening food made of ground white beans mixed to a stiff paste with water, shaped into balls, deep-fried and served with a tomato, sweet pepper and onion sauce flavoured with garlic and chillies
ackee Vegetable used in Caribbean cooking. See also akee
Ackersalat Germany Lamb’s lettuce
ackra fritters Caribbean Jamaican deep-fried fritters made from a mixture of cooked and mashed black-eyed beans with chopped chillies
açorda Portugal Bread soup made from pounded herbs, salt, garlic and water mixed with olive oil and cubed stale bread onto which boiling water is poured until the bread softens. It can be garnished with poached egg.
açorda de mariscos Portugal An açorda flavoured with shellfish and coriander
acorn squash United States Table queen squash
Acorus calamus Botanical name Calamus
acqua Italy Water
acqua cotta Italy A mushroom soup made from a mixture of varieties of fresh and soaked dried mushrooms, sautéed with chopped garlic for 15 minutes, boiled with canned plum tomatoes and their juice, stock, and any available mushroom-steeping liquor, finished with chopped basil and served over toast with grated Parmesan cheese (NOTE: The name, literally ‘cooked water’, is also used of many vegetable soups.)
acra lamori Caribbean Fried salt-cod fish cakes
acrolein The acrid smelling chemical produced from the thermal decomposition of overheated fat which causes eye and throat irritation
Actinidia deliciosa Botanical name The kiwi fruit or Chinese gooseberry
activated dough development A method of speeding up the primary proving of dough by adding small quantities of chemicals such as ascorbic acid, cysteine, bromates, etc., which modify the properties of the gluten
açúcar Portugal Sugar
açúcar granulado Portugal Granulated sugar adalu West Africa Soaked dried cow peas boiled in water until almost cooked then simmered with fresh maize kernels until they begin to disintegrate. Often seasoned with baking soda or potash and pepper. Dried shrimps or pieces of smoked fish may be added to make it into a main dish. Also called
niébé et maïs
Adamsapfel Germany Pummelo
adam’s fig Plantain
Adam’s needle United States See yucca 2
adaptation The process by which the senses become less sensitive to and less stimulated by particular odours or flavours with repeated contact, thus accounting for acquired tastes and the tolerance of high levels of spices, garlic and chillies, etc. in some cultures
adas Indonesia, Malaysia Fennel seed adas cina Indonesia Dill adas manis Indonesia Dill seed added kit Scotland Sweetened curds. See
also hatted kit
addition France The bill (in a restaurant)
additive A substance added to food to improve its properties such as keeping quality, health value, flavour, texture, colour, acidity, stability, tendency to oxidize or dry out, sweetness, cooking properties, viscosity, stickiness and the like. All additives must be listed on packaging either by an E number in the European Union or by name or both unless they are natural materials not required to be listed by any law, regulation or directive. See also E number
Adelaide cake A cake made from a Victoria sponge mixture with added corn flour (1:2 ratio to flour), chopped glacé cherries and chopped almonds
Ädelost A soft to semi-hard Swedish blue cheese made from whole cows’ milk and cast in large rounds. Contains 44% water, 28% fat and 25% protein.
aderezo Spain Salad dressing
adianto Italy Maidenhair fern
adipic acid See E355
adley Philippines Job’s tears
adobada sauce Mexico A Mexican sauce used in making tamales, consisting of pounded or liquidized garlic, onion and cinnamon, fried in oil until dry then simmered with tomato purée, chicken stock, chocolate, sugar and powdered dry chillies or chilli powder. Also called adobo 1
adobo 1. Mexico Adobada sauce 2. Philippines A pork, poultry or fish stew with sweet peppers, garlic, soya sauce, vinegar and coconut milk. The pieces of meat are first crisp-fried before being combined with the sauce.
adrak South Asia Ginger
adriatica, al Italy In the Adriatic style, i.e. fish grilled over wood or charcoal
adschempilavi North Africa Pickled meat
stewed with rice
aduki bean See adzuki bean
adulterant A cheaper substance added to food in order to increase its weight without changing its appearance and thus increase the profit margin. Some are legal, e.g. water and phosphates in chickens, or extenders added to chilli powder.
adulterate, to To add adulterants to food
adzuki bean, azuki bean A type of small flattened oval-shaped reddish-brown bean with a white hilum, Phaseolus angularis, from Japan and China, used as a pulse or ground into flour. It contains more sugar than most beans and is sometimes used as confectionery. It can also be sprouted. Also called aduki bean, azuki bean
æbleflæsk Denmark Fried diced bacon and chopped apples
æblekage Denmark An individual dessert made from layers of sweetened apple purée and breadcrumbs which have been fried in butter and mixed with sugar, the whole being
æbler Denmark Apples
æbleskiver Denmark A non-yeasted type of doughnut with a light texture filled with apple purée and cooked in a special pan with indentations
æg Denmark Egg
æggekage Denmark A thick omelette topped with fried bacon and served in wedges
aegletree fruit Wood apple
aemono Japan A highly decorative mixed salad, usually of chicken, seafood or vegetables dressed with various sauces one of which is made from miso, mashed tofu or egg yolk, vinegar and seasoning. Often served as an appetizer.
aerate, to To incorporate finely divided air into a liquid or powder mixture, by e.g. sieving flour, whisking or beating eggs, or beating air into a cake mixture
aerated bread Bread made from dough which has been mechanically mixed with carbon dioxide without using yeast
aerated flour United States Self-raising flour
aerial yam An orange-coloured yam, Dioscorea bulbifera, which produces several growths, or ‘bulbils’, resembling small tubers about the size of a large thumb above ground. These are very tasty. The underground tuber is edible but not used. The plant is cultivated in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. Also called air potato, potato yam
Aerobacter Any of a group of bacteria used to oxidize alcohol to acetic acid in vinegar production
aerobe The term is applied to microorganisms which require oxygen from the air in order to grow and reproduce. See also anaerobe
Aeromonas hydrophilia A food poisoning bacterium which will grow at temperatures below 10°C
ærter Denmark Peas
afang West Africa The leaves of a forest plant, Gnetum africanum, from southern Nigeria and Cameroon, eaten as a vegetable. Also called okasi, ukasi
afang soup West Africa A soup/stew from southern Nigeria made with meat or offal of any kind which is simmered with onion, chilli pepper, winkles or other snails, stockfish, dried shrimp, red palm oil and a large quantity of chopped afang leaves and waterleaf. Served with fufu or mashed yams.
afelia Greece Tender pork, cubed and browned in olive oil, then simmered in white wine with coriander seeds and seasoning until the meat is tender
affettato Italy Sliced. Used of ham or sausage.
affogato Italy Poached, steamed or plunged
affumicare Italy To smoke
affumicato Italy Smoked
afiorata Italy The finest grade of olive oil made from the cream which rises to the top of the first cold pressing. It is skimmed off and bottled separately and contains a maximum of 1% free oleic acid.
aflata West Africa Fermented maize flour dough boiled with an equal quantity of water and used to make kenkey in Ghana
aflatoxin A toxin produced by certain moulds which grow on stored grains and nuts in tropical areas. The toxin tends to cause low-grade illness and reduced food absorption and growth and is thus not easily noticed unless specially tested for. It is most serious
in animal feeds.
áfonya Hungary Blueberries
Aframomum melegueta Botanical name
Grains of paradise
africaine, à l’ France In the African style, i.e. garnished with aubergines, tomatoes,
mushrooms and potatoes
africains France Small dessert biscuits
African horned melon Kiwano
African hot sauce Central Africa An all-purpose hot sauce made from deseeded chilli peppers, green sweet pepper, garlic, onion, tomato purée, vinegar, sugar and salt, processed and simmered until smooth, then bottled
African spinach See amaranth 1
afronchemoyle Scotland A form of haggis consisting of whole eggs, white breadcrumbs, finely diced soft interior fat of lamb, pepper and saffron, mixed and stuffed into a sheep’s stomach (honeycomb tripe stomach) and steamed or boiled. The first written record is from 1390 A.D.
afternoon tea United Kingdom Cakes, biscuits, scones and dainty sandwiches served with tea in the mid-afternoon
afters United Kingdom The dessert course of a meal (colloquial) See also starter
agachadiza Spain Snipe
agami South America A popular game bird, Guiana agami, used in soups, stews and braised dishes. Also called trumpeter
agar-agar Southeast Asia A natural gelling agent made from seaweed of the Gelidum, Eucheuma or Gracilaria species, sometimes used instead of gelatine. The gel has a very high melting point and it will only dissolve in boiling water. Also called seaweed gelatine, seaweed jelly, Japanese gelatine, macassar gum. See also E406 (NOTE: Suitable for vegetarians.)
agar-agar dengan serikaya Southeast Asia A sweet sugar and agar-agar jelly served with a type of sweetened egg custard made with eggs beaten with brown sugar (e.g. muscovado) and coconut cream until fluffy then cooked over a bain-marie until thick
agar-agar noodles Fine strips of agar-agar soaked in boiling water until just tender and appropriately flavoured. They are used to bulk out cold appetizers. (NOTE: Not to be confused with cellophane noodles.)
agaric A family of fungi, some edible, some deadly poisonous
Agaricus arvensis Botanical name Horse mushroom
Agaricus bisporus Botanical name Cultivated mushroom
Agaricus campestris Botanical name
Common field mushroom
agate ware Enamel-lined metal kitchen ware
agbono West Africa Ogbono
age Japan 1. Deep-fried tofu, cut into pouches, used to make inari by stuffing with sushi rice and flavourings prior to braising in a mixture of dashi, sugar, soya sauce and sake 2. In recipes. See also agemono
agedofu Japan Fried bean curd
ageing The process of leaving foods to age or artificially ageing them using chemicals, e.g. hanging meat and game to improve the flavour and tenderness, adding oxidizing agents to flour to produce a stronger dough agemono Japan Deep-fried food, also the coating, batter or pané used. Always done in vegetable oil, vegetables at 160°C and meat and fish at 170°C. (NOTE: Abbreviated to age
agemono-nabe Japan Pan for deep-frying
agemono no dogu Japan Agemono-nabe
agerhøne Denmark Partridge
ägg Sweden Egg
ägg à la Lena Sweden A cocotte dish with a little liver pâté on the base, a trimmed poached egg on top and all surrounded with a sherry-flavoured setting consommé, garnished with a ring of sweet pepper and cooled until set
aggiada Italy A garlic soup from the northwest Mediterranean region
äggkulor Sweden Egg balls, made from hardboiled egg yolks, seasoned, mashed with soft butter and paprika, cooled, formed into small balls and rolled in diced truffles, truffle oil or chopped wild mushrooms. Used as garnish for soup.
agliata, all’ Italy With garlic sauce
aglio Italy Garlic
aglio e olio Italy Sauce or dressing composed of garlic and oil pounded together
agliota Italy A sauce made by pounding garlic with bread and vinegar
aglycone An antibacterial agent in olives, which inhibits lactic acid fermentation and which is removed by treatment with lye (a
caustic soda solution)
agneau France Lamb
agneau à la hongroise France Hungarian-style lamb made from breast of lamb, defatted and cut into small pieces, browned, added to a roux made from sliced onions browned in butter and flour, paprika added and stock as required, simmered for 1 to 1½ hours
agneau de lait France Unweaned milk-fed lamb
agneau de Pauillac France A small milk-fed lamb, usually roasted
agneau de pré-salé France Young lamb fed on sea-washed pastures (salt marshes or meadows)
agneau pascal France Spring lamb
agnelet France Milk-fed lamb
agnello Italy Lamb
agnello al forno Italy A saddle of lamb larded with onions and garlic, sprinkled with salt and chopped rosemary, roasted in lard and served with potatoes roasted in the same dish
agnello al latte Italy Milk-fed lamb
agnello con cicoria Italy Pieces of boned leg of lamb are casseroled with sliced onions, olive oil, tomatoes, salt and red chillies in the oven at 200°C for 1 hour. Chicory, endive or blanched dandelion leaves are then placed over the lamb, and it is cooked for a further 30 minutes.
agnello con olive all’abbruzzese Italy Floured steaks of boned leg of lamb, browned in olive oil, salted, defatted and heated briefly with stoned black olives (4:1 ratio), oregano, chopped green peppers and finally dressed with lemon juice
agnello in fricassea Italy Lamb chops are browned in lard with chopped onions and strips of pancetta (or smoked bacon); nutmeg, seasoning and brown stock are added and evaporated, then the chops are braised in white wine. To finish, the pan juices are defatted and mixed off heat with beaten egg yolks and lemon juice, the mixture being served as a coating on the chops.
agneshka kebab Bulgaria A casserole of lamb, including its kidneys and sweetbreads with onions, wine, lemon juice, chillies, herbs and seasoning, thickened with eggs and accompanied with boiled rice
Agnès Sorel, garnish Chopped fried mushrooms, small rounds of cooked tongue and chicken mousse or pâté
agnolini Italy Stuffed pasta from Lombardy similar to tortellini
agnolotti Italy A half-moon-shaped ravioli stuffed with minced lamb and onion sautéed in butter mixed with boiled rice or spinach, cheese and seasoning. Served after cooking in standard fashion, sometimes tossed in meat pan juices. Also called pazlache
agnostinele Italy Tiny red mullet passed through seasoned flour and fried
agoni Italy Small flat freshwater fish found in the Italian lakes, often salted and dried. See also misoltini
Agostano Italy Parmesan cheese made in July or August. See also Parmigiano Reggiano
agouti Caribbean A rabbit-sized humpbacked rodent, Dasyprocta antillensis, widespread throughout the Caribbean and Central and South America. Its firm, white, tender meat is highly prized.
Agrafa Greece A hard, scalded-curd, ewes’ milk cheese similar to Gruyère with a few holes and a dry rind
agraz Spain The juice of immature grapes from which verjuice is made
agrazada Spain Verjuice
agresto Italy Verjuice from grapes
agridulce Spain Sweet-and-sour sauce
agrini A small, soft, acid curdled Swiss cheese made from cows’ or goats’ milk with a slightly sour fresh taste, 40 to 60 g in weight
agrio Spain Sour
agriões Portugal Watercress
agro, all’ Italy Dressed with oil and lemon, also soured with lemon juice
agrodolce Italy Bittersweet
agua Portugal, Spain Water
aguacate Spain Avocado
aguacates rellenos de atun Mexico Halved avocado pears, filled with a mixture of tuna, tomato sauce, soured cream, Worcestershire sauce and seasoning, and garnished with chiffonade of lettuce and radish, used as a hors d’oeuvre
aguado Spain Liquid
aguaturma Spain Jerusalem artichoke
aguglia Italy Garfish
aguinaldo honey Mexico A very pale honey from Mexico
aguja Spain Garfish
agulat Spain Rock salmon
agurk Denmark, Norway Cucumber
agurksalat Denmark, Norway Cucumber salad. Generally slices of cucumber, salted and drained for an hour, dried, dressed with pepper, sugar and vinegar, chilled, drained and garnished with chopped parsley or dill.
agusi West Africa The seeds of pumpkins, gourds and other plants belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. See also egusi
ah moi’s mee Malaysia A Malaysian dish of stir-fried noodles with soaked Chinese mushrooms, prawns, cooked chicken, greens, garlic, onion, ginger, egg and soya sauce, garnished with crabmeat, shredded omelette and spring onion
ah moi’s rendang Malaysia A chicken curry made with sugared chicken pieces, onions, garlic, ginger, laos, lemon grass, coconut milk, desiccated coconut and pandan leaves
Ahornsaft Germany Maple syrup
ahumado Spain Smoked
ahumar Spain To smoke
ahven Finland Perch
aiglefin France Haddock
aïgo bouïdo France A simple soup of garlic and sage, possibly plus thyme and bay, boiled in water with olive oil, strained and poured over dried French bread
aïgo bouïdo à la ménagère France A Provençale soup made from sliced onions and leeks, fried in olive oil, crushed garlic, potatoes, fennel and mixed herbs boiled in saffron-flavoured water with orange zest. The strained soup is served over French bread and the potatoes served separately with poached egg and chopped parsley.
aïgo saou France A fish and garlic soup made from pieces of fish, sliced onions, potatoes, bouquet garni, seasoning and garlic boiled in water. The soup is eaten with French bread dressed with olive oil and the fish is eaten separately.
aigre France Sour, sharp, acid
aigre doux France Bittersweet
aigrette England, France A savoury fritter made from cheese-flavoured choux pastry, served as an appetizer
aïgroissade France Cooked solid vegetables,
e.g. roots, tubers, sweet peppers, aubergine, courgettes and the like, served warm with a mayonnaise and garlic sauce
aiguillat France Rock salmon aiguille France Needlefish or garfish from the Mediterranean with green bones which become mauve when cooked. Also called
aiguille à brider France A trussing needle
aiguille à piquer France A larding needle used for small cuts, e.g. filet mignon or rack of hare
aiguillette France A long thin cut of beef from the extreme top of the rump, extending from the sirloin to the tail stump and about one quarter way down the animal. Used for braising and boeuf à la mode.
aiguillettes France Long thin slices, usually of duck breast
ai gwa China Aubergine
ail France Garlic (NOTE: The plural form is ails or aulx.)
ail, à l’ Flavoured with garlic
aile France A wing e.g. of poultry or of a game bird
aileron France 1. A wing, strictly a wing tip, of a bird 2. A fin of a fish
ailerons de poulet carmelite France Breasts and wing bones of poached chicken removed as two pieces, skinned, coated in aspic, placed on a layer of crayfish mousse in a timbale, interspersed with cooked and shelled crayfish tails, covered in aspic jelly, refrigerated and served cold
ailerons de volaille dorés France Large chicken or turkey winglets fried in butter to a colour and set aside. Sliced carrots and onions browned in same butter, placed in oven dish with seasoning and herbs. Winglets placed on top and cooked in a slow oven, then removed. Remainder cooked with white stock for 10 minutes, reduced, strained and poured over winglets.
ailerons de volaille farcis chipolata France Boned winglets of large chicken or turkey stuffed with sausage meat, braised and decorated with chipolata garnish 15 minutes before finishing
ailerons de volaille farcis grillés France Boned winglets of a large chicken or turkey stuffed with sausage meat, braised, coated with sausage meat, covered with caul fat, dipped in melted butter and breadcrumbs, grilled and served with sauce Périgueux
ailerons de volaille Lady Winter France Breasts and wing bones of poached chicken removed as two pieces, skinned, coated in aspic placed with the points uppermost around a cone of set mousse made from the flesh of the chicken legs and decorated with chopped truffle and red ox tongue
aillade France A garlic and nut emulsion sauce made with skinned hazelnuts pounded with garlic and egg yolk, to which a mixed nut and olive or sunflower oil is added as for mayonnaise
aillade toulousaine As aillade, but with walnuts
ailloli France An emulsion sauce, made from white crustless bread soaked in milk, squeezed and mixed with pounded garlic (and possibly egg yolk), to which olive oil is added as in making mayonnaise. The final mixture is let down with lemon juice or wine vinegar to taste. Sometimes ground almonds are added. Also called beurre de Provence
ailloli garni France A Provençal dish of salt cod and vegetables garnished with snails
aioli 1. Italy Garlic pounded with egg yolk and salt then made into a mayonnaise in standard fashion 2. France An alternative spelling for ailloli
aipo Portugal Celery
air-dry, to To hang foodstuffs on hangers or racks in sheds or cages or in open sunlight in cold climates where there is a reasonable flow of fresh air over them. Used for hams, fish, etc.
airelle France 1. Bilberry or whortleberry 2. Blueberry
airelle rouge France Cranberry
air potato Aerial yam
ajam panggang Netherlands Grilled chicken flavoured with ginger, garlic, chilli peppers and saffron (NOTE: This dish originates from Indonesia.)
aji, aji no tataki Japan Horse mackerel, used in sushi
ají Spain Chilli peppers
ajiaceite Spain Garlic-flavoured mayonnaise. See also alioli
ajiaco South America A thick soup or thin stew from Colombia, made of chicken cooked in stock with sweetcorn and sausages, each serving garnished with sliced hard-boiled eggs and cream
ajiaco cubano Cuba A soup made from salt pork, pickled pork and pork flesh with chick peas, garlic, aubergine, sweet corn, pumpkin and potatoes, seasoned and flavoured with saffron
ajiaco de papas South America A potato stew from Peru made from cubed boiled potatoes mixed with chopped and fried garlic, onion and jalapeno chillies all fried to a colour, milk or cream, chopped hard-boiled eggs and crumbled cheese
aji-li-mojili sauce Caribbean A hot vinaigrette made with olive oil, vinegar and lime juice (2:1:1) into which processed garlic and chilli pepper are mixed together with salt and pepper
ajillo, al Mexico Fried with ajillo chilli
aji-mirin Japan A mixture of mirin, sugar syrup and salt used in the same way as mirin aji-no-moto Japan A trademark for
monosodium glutamate ajlouke North Africa Appetizers, hors
d’oeuvres, from Tunisia
ajo Spain Garlic
ajo blanco Spain 1. A basic bread, garlic, oil and vinegar gazpacho with added pounded or liquidized skinned almonds, garnished with peeled and deseeded grapes 2. A cold soup made from garlic and almonds pounded with olive oil to a thick paste, mixed with water and seasoning and served with sippets
ajomba Central Africa A method of cooking meat or fish in banana leaves. See also
ajonjoli Spain Sesame seeds
ajowan A plant of the caraway family, Carum ajowan, whose seeds are used as a spice and as a source of ajowan oil and thymol. It has a strong thyme-like flavour, and is used in Indian cooking often in conjunction with starch foods and pulses. Also called lovage 2, ajwain, carom, bishop’s weed
ajula Italy The North Italian name for striped sea bream
ajwain See ajowan
akadashi, akadashi-miso Japan A miso similar to hatcho-miso. Also called aka-miso
akagai Japan Ark shell, a type of clam about 10 cm in diameter. This is one of the few shellfish which use haemoglobin to transport oxygen and is thus red in colour. It is usually available cooked, and used in preparing sushi.
akami Japan A dark red meat from around the spine of the tuna fish, used as a separate cut in sushi
aka-miso Japan Akadashi
akara West Africa Black-eyed beans, soaked overnight and skinned, then processed with chillies, onions, salt and egg so as to incorporate air. The bean mixture is then formed into small balls and deep-fried in oil until browned. Served hot or cold. Also called koosé (NOTE: Also known as akkra in Jamaica, acra in Trinidad and calas in New Orleans)
akee The fruit of a small African tree, Blighia sapida, introduced to the Caribbean by Captain Bligh and now extensively grown there. The soft creamy flesh of the ripe fruit is used as a vegetable e.g. in akee and saltfish. The outer pink skin is poisonous. Also called achee, ackee
akee and saltfish Caribbean A traditional breakfast dish of Jamaica consisting of akee fried with onions, sweet peppers, chillies, tomatoes and flaked salt cod. It looks like piperade or scrambled eggs.
åkerärter Sweden Field peas which are yellow when dried. Used in the Swedish national soup gula ärter med fläsk.
akilt-b-dabbo East Africa An Ethiopian vegetarian dish of vegetables with bread
akni South Asia A court bouillon, used in Indian cooking, made by simmering herbs, spices and other flavourings in water to aromatize it. Used for steaming rice and vegetables. Typical flavourings are fried onion, coriander seed, fennel seed, chopped sweet pepper, garlic and fresh ginger.
akoho sy vanio South Africa A dish from Madagascar made from chicken pieces marinated in lemon juice, lemon zest, salt and pepper which are then sautéed with previously sautéed onions and garlic. Tomatoes and finely chopped ginger are then added to the mixture, and finally all is simmered in coconut milk until cooked through. Served with rice.
akpith West Africa Maize meal and soya flour
(4:1) sieved with baking powder (50g per kg of flour mixture) plus chilli powder, salt, pepper and sugar to taste. Half the mixture is cooked with twice its weight of water over a low heat, then the rest added and mixed to a stiff dough which is formed into small balls, deep-fried and eaten hot as a snack.
akudjura Australia Ground dried bush tomato used as a flavouring. It has a tamarillo/caramel flavour.
akureyri Iceland A blue cheese made from ewes’ milk
ak yaw Burma A crisp accompaniment made from a batter of rice flour, turmeric and water, shallow-fried in spoonfuls in oil and scattered with yellow and green split peas before the fritters are turned over in the oil
ål Denmark, Norway, Sweden Eel
al’-, all’-, alla- Italy In the style of
à la France In the style of, in the manner of, with (NOTE: Used before feminine French nouns.)
alaccia Italy 1. A large variety of sardine 2. Celery (Naples)
alalonga Italy Albacore
alamang Philippines The tiny shrimp (up to 1
cm) used to make Filipino shrimp paste
alanine A non-essential amino acid
alaria A seaweed, Alaria esculenta, found in the North Atlantic; similar to the Japanese wakame. Also called murlins, brown ribweed, ribweed, wing kelp
Alaska See baked Alaska Alaska black cod See black cod Alaska Dungeness crab See Dungeness crab Alaskan king crab A very large crab from the
northern Pacific, Paralithodes camtschatica, weighing up to 10 kg and with a leg span of 3 m. Its excellent meat is usually processed or canned.
Alaska pollack A variety of the seawater fish pollack, Theragra chalcogramma, found in the northwest Pacific. It is of the cod family, weighs around 1 kg and has an olive green to brown upper skin. The lean white flesh may be cooked in any way, but is usually salted and dried or pickled. The roe is also salted for the Japanese market. Also called Alaska pollock, walleye pollack, walleye pollock (NOTE: The name walleye pollack/pollock comes from its distinctive appearance.)
Alba, al modo d’ Italy In the Alban style, i.e. with truffles
albacore A small variety of tuna, Thunnus alalunga, up to 1 m in length with a soft white flesh, not recommended for poaching, but can be eaten raw e.g. for sashimi or baked or
grilled. Also called long fin tuna
albahaca Spain Basil
albaricoque Spain Apricot
albedo United States The white inner pith of the citrus fruit skin
albergínia (plural albergínies) Catalonia Aubergine(s)
Albert, sauce England, France Grated horseradish simmered in white bouillon for 20 minutes; butter sauce, cream and breadcrumbs added; thickened by reduction; sieved, thickened again with egg yolks and finished with seasoning, English
mustard, vinegar and chopped parsley
Albert oranges Canada Rose hips
albicocca Italy Apricot
albillos Spain White grapes
albóndigas Mexico, Spain Meatballs or meat patties made from finely chopped tenderloin of pork and fat bacon combined with chopped garlic and red pepper, seasoning and bound with whole egg; fried, then braised in a suitable sauce
albóndigas con chipotle Mexico Minced pork, beef, bread, vinegar, sugar and seasoning, formed into balls; shallow-fried in oil until brown, then baked in the oven with salsa de chile chipotle, and garnished with flaked almonds
albóndigas con guisantes Spain Meat patties made from chopped beef, onions and seasoning; formed, browned on both sides in butter, simmered in demi-glace with tomato purée and garlic paste and served with the sauce and green peas
albondiguillas Spain Small patties made from minced cooked meat mixed with breadcrumbs, egg, white wine, chopped parsley, seasoning and herbs; panéed, shallow-fried in oil and served with tomato sauce
albondiguillas a la criolla Spain Albondiguillas served with a tomato sauce mixed with chopped sweet pepper sweated in butter and a separate saffron-flavoured and coloured rice pilaff
albondiguitas Mexico Small fried meatballs made from pork. beef, bread, vinegar, sugar and seasoning, usually served on sticks as a cocktail snack.
albricoque Portugal Apricot
albufera, sauce England, France Sauce suprême mixed with meat glaze and pimento butter
albumen The white of egg, the nutritive material surrounding the yolk of the eggs of higher animals, which also contains various anti-bacterial substances. Hens’ egg albumen consists of the protein albumin (9 – 12%) and water (84 – 87%), in total about 58% of the weight of the egg. It forms a very stable emulsion with air and hence is used in a variety of air-raised dishes. It may be dried to a powder for reconstituting or deep-frozen.
albumen index A measure of egg quality equal to the ratio of the height of a mass of egg white to its diameter as it sits on a flat surface. A higher index indicates higher quality.
albumin A mixture of water soluble proteins found in egg white, blood and other foods. Like all proteins, these denature and coagulate when heated or treated with various chemicals e.g. alcohol. See also ovalbumin
alcachofa Spain Globe artichoke
alcachôfra Portugal Globe artichoke
alcahual Mexico A delicately flavoured
amber-coloured honey from Mexico
alcaparra Spain Caper
alcaravea Spain Caraway
alcaravia Portugal Caraway
alce Italy Elk
Alcobaça Portugal A semi-hard cheese made from ewes’ milk with a white smooth paste and thin dry rind, cast in small rounds (about 220 g). Contains 45% water, 30% fat and 20% protein.
alcohol The generic name for a class of chemical compounds which includes ethanol, the commonest mood-altering substance used in all cultures. Most are toxic, particularly methanol which is found in methylated and surgical spirits and many household liquids. Propanol and butanol, the other common alcohols, are used as solvents and in cleaning agents.
al cuarto de hora Spain Mussel soup made from chopped onions, parsley, diced ham and rice all sweated in butter, mixed with water and the liquor from the cooking of the mussels, seasoned and cooked, served with the mussels and garnished with chopped hard-boiled eggs (NOTE: The name indicates that it can be made in 15 minutes.)
al dente Italy Cooked to be firm to the bite. Used of pasta or vegetables. Dried commercial pasta is al dente when the
whitish centre of the paste just disappears. (NOTE: Literally ‘to the tooth’.)
aldoxime An artificial zero-calorie sweetener, 450 times sweeter than sucrose
ale An alcoholic drink made from top fermented extract of malted grains. The name is generally nowadays applied only to crystal (lightly coloured) malts. Ale may be flavoured e.g. with hops.
ale berry See ale gruel
alecrim Portugal Rosemary
ale flip England Beer heated with mace, cloves and butter, poured into separately beaten egg yolk let down with cold beer and egg white (1 egg per litre)
alegar Ale vinegar
ale gruel England A Yorkshire drink made from a very thin gruel of porridge oats and water mixed, when hot, with an equal part of beer, to which is added grated ginger root, nutmeg, cinnamon and sugar to taste
ale jelly England A jelly made from ale, sugar, cinnamon and lemon juice, boiled together, clarified with egg white and set with gelatine
alemtejo Portugal A soft, round cheese made from ewes’ milk with added thistle-type flowers
alentejana, à Portugal In the style of Alentejo,
i.e. with garlic, olive oil and paprika Aleppo nut Pistachio nut alesandre salami A variety of Italian salami aletria Portugal Vermicelli aletta Italy 1. A wing of a bird 2. A fin of a fish
Aleurobius acaras Botanical name A mite sometimes found in old, poorly stored flour. If seriously infested, the flour has a purplish tinge.
alewife United States A member of the herring family, Alosa pseudoharengus, similar to the true herring but with a deeper body. It is found off the east coast of North America and may be baked, fried or grilled.
alewife caviar United States The female roe of the alewife, processed to resemble caviar
alexanders A hardy biennial herb, Smyrnium olusatrum, with a celery-type flavour resembling lovage and angelica. Its roots can be boiled or candied, its young stems braised, its leaves and flower buds used in salad or as a pot herb and its seeds used for flavouring. Also called black lovage
alface Portugal Lettuce
alfalfa A variety of lucerne, Medicago sativa, a leguminous plant normally used as cattle fodder. The seeds are sprouted to give a
crisp plant stem about 4 cm long, used in
salads or for stir-frying as a vegetable. alfóncigo Spain Pistachio nut alfóstigo Portugal Pistachio nut
alfredo, all’ Italy Tossed in cream and butter.
Used e.g. of pasta. alga Italy, Spain Seaweed, algae algae Non-self-supporting vegetable-like
organisms which flourish in fresh or salt water, generally greenish in colour, ranging in size from the microscopic to enormous (e.g. with 100-metre-long fronds). Of culinary importance are the microscopic Chlorella and Spirulina, which are used as health foods, and the larger seaweeds, used either as vegetables or as a source of various food-thickening agents. See also agar-agar, alginic acid, carragheen, laver bread, nori
alga mar An edible seaweed, Durvillea
antarctica, exported to the USA from Chile algarroba Spain Carob Alge Germany Seaweed, algae
Algerian clementine United States Fina algérienne, à l’ France In the Algerian style,
i.e. garnished with small croquettes of sweet potato and small empty tomatoes, seasoned and braised in oil
algin United States Alginates used for
thickening. See also alginic acid alginates Salts and esters of alginic acid alginic acid A carbohydrate acid, E400,
obtained from various seaweeds and used as a thickening and gelling agent in commercial ice cream and convenience foods. It is also supplied as the sodium salt, sodium alginate, E401, used mainly in ice cream, the potassium salt, E402, and the calcium salt, E404, which forms a much stiffer gel than the other salts. It is also available as an ester, propane 2-diol alginate, E405.
algue France Seaweed, algae algue rouge France Dulse alheira Portugal A sausage made with
smoked ham, garlic and nuts alho Portugal Garlic alho frances Portugal Leek. Also called alho
porros alholva Spain Fenugreek alho-porro Portugal Leek Alicante Spain A fresh, white, rindless cheese
made from goat’ milk, curdled with rennet and stored in weak brine or water. Contains 60% water, 15% fat and 20% protein.
alice Italy Fresh anchovy aligi Philippines Tomalley aligot de marinette France A purée of
potatoes beaten vigorously with crushed garlic, bacon fat and half its weight of Laguiole cheese in a bain-marie until just smooth and elastic
alimentação Portugal 1. Food 2. Nourishment
alimentari Italy 1. Groceries 2. Grocery shop
alimentary pastes Pastas, noodles and
similar foodstuffs made from dough
aliñado Spain Seasoned
aliño Spain 1. Seasoning 2. Salad dressing
alioli Spain Garlic-flavoured mayonnaise.
Also called ajiaceite
alitán Spain Larger spotted dogfish
alkali An alkali is a substance containing a deficiency of hydrogen ions (or an excess of hydroxyl ions) compared with pure water. An alkali (e.g. sodium hydroxide) will combine with an acid (e.g. alginic acid) to form a neutral salt (e.g. sodium alginate). The most common culinary alkalis are sodium bicarbonate and ammonium carbonate both of which liberate carbon dioxide gas when heated or combined with an acid such as tartaric acid.
alkalinity A measure of the strength of an alkali on the scale of pH which goes from 7 (neutral) through 7.7 to 9.2 (egg white), 8.4 (sodium bicarbonate or baking soda), 11.9 (household ammonia) to 14 (highest value of alkalinity). Strong alkalis such as sodium hydroxide react with fat in the skin to form soaps which give a characteristic slimy feel. alkaloids The components of plants responsible in most cases for their bitter taste and therapeutic effects. Typical examples are quinine used in tonic water and caffeine and theobromine found in coffee beans. Other well known alkaloids are cocaine, strychnine, atropine and morphine.
alkanet A Mediterranean plant of the borage family, Anchusa tinctora, whose roots provide a red or blue (depending on pH) food dye similar to henna. Also called alkanna
all Catalonia Garlic (NOTE: The plural is grans
allache France A large sardine
allemande France The term applied to dishes garnished with German specialities such as sauerkraut, smoked sausage, pickled pork, potato dumpling, etc.
allemande, à l’ France In the German style,
i.e. garnished with noodles and mashed potatoes
allergens Compounds, either proteins or smaller chemicals, which react with the proteins of the skin and mucous membranes (eyes, nose, lungs, gut, etc.) of some persons to elicit the immune response of the body causing rashes, irritation, asthma, etc.
Typical food allergies occur with strawberries, eggs, milk, cereal, fish, peas, and nuts. The response should not be confused with that produced by enzyme deficiencies as e.g. with the inability to metabolize lactose, found in most Chinese, and the inability to metabolize gluten, which is fairly common in the West.
Allgäuer Bergkäse Germany A hard cows’ milk cheese similar to Emmental
Allgäuer Rahmkäse Germany A soft, mild, Limburger-type cheese
Allgewürz Germany Allspice
Alliaria petiolata Botanical name Garlic mustard
allicin The chemical compound in garlic which gives it its characteristic smell and taste
alligator A large carnivorous amphibian found in the swamps and rivers of the southern USA and the Yangtze river in China. The meat, especially the tail meat, is eaten during the hunting season and is a speciality of Cajun cuisine.
alligator pear Avocado
allioli Catalonia A thick emulsion of garlic, salt and olive oil either pounded together or prepared in a mechanical blender. Served cold as an accompaniment to fish, meat or
vegetables. (NOTE: From the Catalan all meaning ‘garlic’.)
allipebre d’anguiles Catalonia A spicy eel stew, flavoured with paprika, peppers, garlic and saffron
allis shad See shad
Allium The botanical name for the important family of plants, including onions and spring onions Allium cepa, shallots Allium cepa Aggregatum group, Welsh or bunching onions (ciboule) Allium fistulosum, Egyptian onion or tree onion Allium cepa var. proliferum, leeks Allium porum, garlic Allium sativum, giant garlic (rocambole) Allium scorodoprasum, chives Allium schoenoprasum and Chinese chives Allium tuberosum.
Allium ascalonicum Botanical name Shallot Allium cepa Botanical name 1. Onion 2.
Allium cepa var. proliferum Botanical name Egyptian onion
Allium fistulosum Botanical name Welsh onion
Allium porrum Botanical name Leek
Allium ramosum Botanical name Asian leek
Allium sativum Botanical name Garlic
Allium schoenoprasum Botanical name Chives
Allium tuberosum Botanical name Chinese chives
allodola Italy Lark, the bird
alloro Italy Bay tree
all-purpose flour United States Plain white flour blended from hard and soft wheat flours allspice The dried, green, unripe berry of a tree, Pimenta dioca or P. officinalis, which grows exclusively in the Caribbean and South America. It has a flavour of cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves combined. Used in cakes, in food manufacture and extensively in Jamaican meat dishes. Also called Jamaican pepper, pimento 1, myrtle pepper
allumettes France Matchsticks e.g. pommes allumettes = straw potatoes; allumettes au fromage = cheese straws
allumettes aux anchois France Rectangles of puff pastry coated with a thin layer of fish forcemeat flavoured with anchovy essence and garnished with fillets of anchovy prior to baking
allumettes aux crevettes France As allumettes aux anchois, but with a forcemeat of whiting and shrimp butter containing cooked and sliced shrimps
allumettes caprice France As allumettes aux anchois, but with a forcemeat of chicken and cream with chopped ox tongue and truffle
allumettes pour hors d’oeuvres France Rectangles of 8 mm puff pastry used as a base for hors d’oeuvres, generally covered with a thin layer of forcemeat flavoured with cayenne pepper and cut into 7 cm by 2.5 cm rectangles prior to baking. They are decorated as appropriate.
alma-ata plov Central Asia A Central Asian rice pilaf, made with chicken stock and containing cubed lamb, julienned carrots, sliced onions, chopped apples, dried raisins, dried apricots and almonds, flavoured with orange juice and zest
al macc Italy A northern soup of milk with chestnuts and rice. Also called mach
almaciga Spain Mastic
almamártás Hungary Apple sauce
almás palacsinta Hungary Pancake with chopped apples
almavica Italy A dessert similar to semolina pudding
almeja Spain Clam, carpet shell and similar bivalve molluscs
almejas marineras Spain Clams in a sauce based on garlic and olive oil
almejas palourdes Spain Carpet shell clams
almejón brillante Spain Venus shell clam
almendra Spain Almond
almendrado Spain Macaroon
almendras garapiñadas Spain Sugared almonds
almôço Portugal Lunch (taken between 13.30 and 15.00 hrs)
almond The kernel (nut) of the fruit of the almond tree. The sweet variety, Prunus dulcis var. dulcis, is used whole, split, flaked, chopped or ground in cookery. The bitter variety, Prunus dulcis var. amara, is used for the production of almond essence and almond oil and very occasionally in cooking.
almond biscuits Ground almonds and caster sugar folded into stiffly beaten egg white, piped onto rice paper, decorated and baked at 180°C
almond butter A compound butter made from freshly shelled sweet almonds pounded to a fine paste with twice their weight of butter and passed through a fine sieve. Also called amandine butter
almond cream A sweet made from a mixture of ground almonds with egg yolks and orange flower water, thickened in a bain
marie and garnished with almond praline
almôndêga Portugal Meatball
almond essence An alcoholic extract of fermented bitter almonds, used to give an almond flavour to cakes, etc. Some almond essences are made from apricot kernels
almond flakes Dehusked almonds separated into two halves. Also called flaked almonds
almond flavouring A synthetic chemical product with an almond flavour and smell, much cheaper than almond essence and commonly used as a substitute
almond milk England A medieval substitute for milk during Lent, made by pounding sweet almonds plus a few bitter almonds with water, then mixing with barley water and sugar and boiling to a creamy consistency
almond nibs Evenly chopped blanched almonds about 2 to 3 mm in diameter used as a decoration
almond oil An oil with a very delicate flavour obtained by pressing or solvent extraction from bitter almonds. Used in confectionery and for oiling dessert moulds.
almond paste See marzipan almond potatoes Pommes amandine almond powder United States Very finely
ground almonds used in desserts
almond sauce 1. Sweetened milk, thickened with corn flour and flavoured with almond essence 2. Scotland Milk, eggs, caster sugar and ground almonds (6:2:1:1) mixed and flavoured with orange flower water and heated over a double boiler until it thickens (85°C). Served with steamed puddings.
almond slice An individual cake made from a rectangle of pastry covered with a thick almond topping similar to frangipane and decorated with flaked almonds
almuerzo 1. Mexico Brunch 2. Spain Lunch
Alnwick stew England A casserole from Northumberland of cubed bacon layered with onions and potatoes, seasoned with pepper and mustard and simmered with water and bay leaf for about 2 hours
aloco West Africa A popular dish in the Cote d’Ivoire, consisting of plantains fried in palm oil, reserved and drained, together with chopped onions, chilli pepper and tomatoes fried in the same oil and simmered with a little water to make a chunky sauce. The sauce is poured over the plantains. Aloco is
used as an accompaniment to grilled fish.
aloo South Asia Potato
aloo bhurta South Asia Boiled potatoes mashed with 3 tbsp per kilogram of minced red peppers, chopped chives and molten butter, 2 tbsp of chopped parsley or coriander leaves and a little powdered bay plus salt and pepper. Served hot or cold.
aloo bokhara South Asia Sour prunes
aloo chat South Asia A spiced potato dish made from large diced potatoes, fried in ghee until coloured, mixed with minced onions and garlic, chat masala, chilli powder, seasoning, crumbled bay leaf, chopped red chilli and chopped fresh coriander leaves, then cooked until tender in a covered pan with a little water if necessary
alootikka South Asia A potato and chickpea rissole served with yoghurt and tamarind sauce. Also called alutikka
alosa Italy Shad
alose France Shad
alose à la provençale France Alternate layers of sorrel mixed with chopped onions and slices of shad, finishing with a sorrel layer, are placed in a garlic-flavoured pan or casserole with a tight fitting lid. The top is sprinkled with thyme, oil, seasoning and marc or brandy, the lid sealed on and the whole cooked over a very low heat or in a slow oven for 7 hours.
alose à la tomate et au vin France A whole shad placed on a bed of tomato concassée, butter and chopped garlic in a flame-proof casserole, covered with tomato concassée, chopped onions, chopped mushrooms, white wine and melted butter, covered, cooked on top of the stove for 3 minutes and finished in a moderate oven for 20 to 25 minutes
alose de la Loire à l’oseille France An incised and seasoned whole shad, oiled and
grilled for 2.5 minutes per side, finished in the oven on a bed of sorrel purée mixed with butter and lemon juice and served with the purée, wedges of hard-boiled egg and slices of lemon
alose farcie France A whole shad, stuffed with a forcemeat of soft roes, white bread moistened with milk, seasoning, nutmeg, chives, parsley, chervil, egg and egg yolks, is incised, wrapped in oiled paper, baked for 35–40 minutes and served accompanied by sauce Bercy
alose feinte France Twaite shad
alose grillée France Shad, incised whole or cut into darnes, marinated in oil, lemon juice and herbs, grilled over moderate heat until cooked through, served with lemon slices and either parsley or anchovy butter and sauce Bercy
alose grillée à l’oseille France Grilled shad accompanied by sorrel, stewed in butter then braised; the whole presented in a deep dish and served with melted butter, presented separately. See also alose grillée
alouette France Lark, a small bird. Once used in cooking but now protected in the EU.
alouette sans tête France A beef olive, also made with veal
aloyau de boeuf France Sirloin of beef on the bone, usually including the fillet and prepared especially for top-class roasting
aloyau de boeuf froid France Cold roast sirloin of beef including the fillet, on the bone and coated with aspic jelly
Aloysia triphylla Botanical name Lemon verbena
Alpbergkäse A cooked-curd, dense German cheese made from whole cows’ milk with a dense dry rind and a few holes, cast into large rounds weighing 20 to 30 kg. Contains 40% water, 27% fat and 25% protein.
alp cheese A hard, pale yellow mountain cheese. See also Berg
Alpenkäse A hard, pale yellow mountain cheese. See also Berg
Alpenklüber Switzerland A Rohwurst made of lean pork, beef and pork fat, air-dried and
Alpenschneehuhn Germany Ptarmigan
alpha-linolenic acid A fatty acid found in ester form in high proportion in walnut oil, purslane and soya oil (NOTE: It is said to be the reason why Cretans and Japanese have a low incidence of heart attacks, since it has protective effects esp. against repeat heart attacks.)
Alpin France A soft rindless cheese made from cows’ milk curdled with rennet and made into small rounds similar to Vacherin Mont d’Or. It is dry-salted and ripened for a week or more. It contains 55% water, 21% fat and 21% protein.
Alpine cheese A hard, pale yellow mountain cheese. See also Berg
alpine hare See Scottish hare
Alpine pepper Australia The fruit of a bush, Tasmannia xerophila, which is the hottest of the Australian peppers. It is unrelated to the common peppercorn, Piper nigrum. See also mountain pepper
alpine strawberry A small, delicately flavoured strawberry, Fragaria vesca sempiflorens, F. alpina which fruits constantly from June to October in the UK.
Alpinia galanga Botanical name Greater galangal
Alpinia officinarum Botanical name Lesser galangal
alpino United States A variety of salami
alsacien(ne) France From Alsace, usually garnished with sauerkraut and/or ham, smoked sausage and peas
alsacienne, à l’ In the Alsace style, i.e. garnished with small tartlet cases filled with braised sauerkraut and topped with a round slice of lean ham
al-salooq Persian Gulf A sweetmeat or dessert made from a flour, milk and molten butter dough (12:5:5) flavoured with cardamon and with 2 dsp of baking powder per kg of flour. Walnut-sized balls are shaped into crescents, deep-fried at 190°C for 5 minutes until brown, then drained and coated in icing sugar.
Alse Germany Shad
ålsoppa Sweden A thick soup or thin stew made from pieces of skinned eel boiled in salted water with some mixed peppercorns for 25 minutes. The eel is then removed and replaced with floury potatoes and leeks, which are cooked until the potatoes fall and the whole is like thin mashed potatoes. The eel is then added back, and the dish is seasoned and its consistency adjusted with
Altaiski See Altay
Altay Russia A hard cheese with a dry rind and medium-sized holes cast into large rounds weighing about 12 to 20 kg. Contains 42% water, 30% fat and 24% protein. Also called Altaiski, Altaysky
Altaysky See Altay altea Italy Marshmallow Altenburger (Ziegenkäse) A variable-fat
content small, round, soft cheese, similar to Camembert, made in eastern Germany from goats’ and cows’ milk. It contains 66 to 56% water, 7 to 20% fat and 25 to 20% protein for the half-fat to full-fat versions.
Althaea officinalis Botanical name Marshmallow
altitude effects The temperature at which water boils depends upon the pressure to which it is subjected, which in an open vessel depends upon the altitude. The boiling point of water drops by approximately 1°C for every 900 feet (290 m) rise, hence the need for pressure cookers at high
alt Kuhkäse Germany Hard cheese
alubia Spain Kidney bean
alum See aluminium potassium sulphate
alumbeberas Philippines Pomfret, the fish
aluminium An extremely thin aluminium foil, which may be used as food decoration. It has no nutritional value and may be harmful. See also E173
aluminium calcium silicate See E556
aluminium foil Aluminium metal rolled until very thin and flexible. Because it is relatively inert and does not easily corrode, it is useful as a wrapping for food or for cooking. Also called cooking foil
aluminium potassium sulphate A firming agent used in e.g. chocolate-coated cherries. It is also used as a preservative and firming agent for pickles in Southeast Asian cooking.
Also called alum
aluminium sodium silicate See E554
alutikka South Asia A potato and chickpea rissole. See also alootikka
alveograph The instrument which measures the strength of dough prior to baking by injecting air into it at a fixed depth and flow rate through a nozzle and recording the pressure at which the resulting bubble bursts
Alvorca Portugal A hard, dense, grating cheese made with ewes’ milk in 200 to 300g rounds with a dry brown rind. Contains 25% water, 37% fat and 33% protein.
alya Middle East Fat from the tails of lamb and mutton much used in Iraq
amaebi Japan A sweet tasting shrimp about 12 cm long used in sushi
amahong Philippines Asian mussel
amai Japan Sweet
Amalfi lemon Italy A prized variety of lemon from the south of Naples, which is allowed to ripen on the tree and is thus less acid. It is larger than normal with a rough knobbly skin and a very fine flavour and aroma.
Amalfi salad Cleaned and prepared mussels and small clams are boiled to open with dry white wine and chopped shallots. The sound meat is reserved. Meat from opened scallops is sliced and sautéed in butter for a few seconds. The clam and mussel liquor is reduced by half and finished with single cream to form a sauce. The salad is assembled from sliced cold waxy potatoes topped with the cooked shell fish. The sauce is poured over and the whole is garnished with chopped parsley and served warm.
amalgamer France To mix, amalgamate or blend
amalu North Africa A delicious Moroccan spread made from argan oil, almond paste and honey
amande France Almond
amandel Netherlands Almond
amandes, fish aux Fish meunière with coarsely chopped almonds added to the beurre noisette. Also called poisson meunière aux amandes
amandine France A name given to certain almond-flavoured French pastries and sponges
amandine butter See almond butter
amanida catalana Catalonia A salad of cooked vegetables and any of cured meat, cheese, fish or seafood, or hard-boiled eggs
with lettuce and tomatoes
amanida verda Catalonia Green salad
amaranth 1. A widely distributed tropical and subtropical plant of the genus Amaranthus, whose leaves are used as a vegetable, supplied fresh or canned. There are two popular types: one is green and mild, and the other is red. It is generally lightly cooked by steaming. A variety of names are used for the local species, i.e. callaloo, bhaji, elephant’s ear, sag, sagaloo, African spinach, Chinese spinach, Indian spinach, and Surinam amaranth. (NOTE: Amaranth is often credited with magical powers.) 2. E123, a synthetic yellow food colouring banned in the USA
Amaranthus Botanical name Amaranth
Amaranthus caudatus Botanical name One of the amaranths with pale green leaves and vivid red tassel-like flowers. Often grown as an ornamental plant.
Amaranthus cruentus Botanical name The most commonly grown amaranth, with oval, light green leaves and long spiky flowers
Amaranthus tricolor Botanical name Chinese spinach
amardine Middle East Sheets of dried apricot paste used for flavouring drinks or desserts or as a constituent of certain Middle East lamb stews
amarelle United States A sour red variety of cherry with a colourless juice, used for cherry pie and liqueurs
18 amarena Italy Morello cherry
amaretti Italy Small sweet meringue-like macaroons made from ground almonds, sugar and stiffly whipped egg whites (3:5:1), alternatively (2:3:1), blended to a stiff paste, possibly with almond essence, piped onto parchment paper and baked at 175°C. They may be decorated with almond flakes before baking. They are usually shop-bought. See
amasar Spain To knead
amassada Portugal Mashed
amatriciana, all’ Italy In the style of the town of Amatrice, i.e. used of dishes with a sauce made of tomatoes, onions and salt pork or bacon
amayuela Spain Golden carpet shell clam
amazushoga Japan Red-coloured wafer-thin slices of pickled ginger. See also benishoga amberjack A large round brightly coloured fish, Seriola dumerili and other species of Seriola, found in tropical and subtropical
amb halad South Asia Zedoary
ambrosia Italy A dessert made from layers of thinly sliced oranges, sliced bananas, fresh pineapple, desiccated coconut and caster sugar
ambrosía Mexico A very sweet scented herb whose leaves are used in cold drinks in the same way as mint
amchoor South Asia A flavouring similar to tamarind made by drying slices of unripe mango, Magnifera indica. It is also supplied in powdered form and is used for souring and tenderizing. Also called aamchur,
amchar, amchor, amchur, mango powder
amchor, amchur See amchoor
ame Japan A sweet jelly made from boiled millet used to flavour fish dishes
ame hnat Burma A dish of braised beef with fried chopped onions, garlic, ginger, chilli powder, lemon zest, etc. garnished with crisp fried onions
amêijoas Portugal Small, thin shelled and very sweet clams
ameixa Portugal 1. Plum 2. Prune
amêndoa Portugal Almond
amendoim Portugal Peanut
américaine, garnish à l’ Slices of lobster tails which have been fried then cooked in white wine, fish stock, brandy, meat glaze, demiglace sauce, chopped shallots, tomato concassée, chopped parsley and cayenne pepper
américaine, sauce France The cooking liquor from garnish à l’américaine or homard à l’américaine, reduced, mixed with the lobster coral and cream from its head plus butter, strained and finished with chopped parsley
American broccoli Calabrese
American brown shrimp See American shrimp
American burbot A freshwater non-oily relative of the cod, Lota maculosa, found in the Great Lakes of Canada and North America. Cooked like cod.
American crayfish The small common crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, of North
American cress Land cress
American frosting United States A cake icing, hard on the outside but soft inside, made from sugar and water boiled to 120°C with a little cream of tartar, then slightly cooled and whisked into stiffly beaten egg white. Also called boiled frosting, boiled icing, frosting
American fudge cake See fudge cake American grape A more cold-tolerant grape,
Vitus labrusca or V. rotundifolia, which has been hybridized with the European grape, Vitus vinifera, to produce a wide range of cooler-climate cultivars. American grapes are considered to be inferior to the European varieties, V. rotundifolia having a foxy flavour. American long-grain rice A long thin white rice from which the husk, bran and germ have been removed. Stays separate when cooked. Also called regular milled white rice
American meringue United States The type of meringue used for a Pavlova, made by mixing corn flour and acid with meringue Suisse and baking at a higher temperature than normal for a shorter period to give a crisp outside with a soft sticky centre
American mustard A sweet, mild variety of mustard made from ground, dehusked white mustard seeds coloured with turmeric and mixed with vinegar, etc. Used as a condiment particularly with hot dogs and hamburgers
American navy bean See navy bean
American oyster A variety of oyster, Crassostrea virginica, reaching 17 cm in length and found on the American side of the Atlantic. Usually cooked. Also called eastern oyster
American persimmon A variety of persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, about 4 cm in diameter and with redder skin and flesh
American pink shrimp See American shrimp
American plaice A large flatfish, Hippoglossoides platesoides, similar to, but with less definite markings than, the European plaice. Also called Canadian plaice, sand dab
American relishes Hors d’oeuvres consisting of aceto-dolce pickles flavoured with cinnamon and cayenne and accompanied by small cinnamon biscuits
American service A method of serving food in a restaurant by dividing it amongst individual plates in the kitchen rather than serving from a platter at the table
American shad A variety of shad, Alosa sapidissima, more popular in the USA than shad is in Europe
American shrimp A large shrimp of the genus Penaeus (up to 15 cm) fished south of the Carolinas and closely related to the king prawn. There are three varieties: the brown
P. aztecus aztecus, the pink P. duorarum duorarum and the white P. setiferus. American veal cuts United States Veal cuts American whelk A variety of whelk, Busycon carica, which can reach 30 cm in length American white shrimp See American shrimp
a-mer-tha-hin Burma A mild beef curry made from fried pieces of stewing beef and a fried, pounded spice mixture (onions, garlic, fresh ginger, salt, turmeric and chilli powder) cooked in beef stock and thick soy sauce. Other recipes include vinegar, bay leaves, fish sauce and cinnamon. Also called améthà-hin
amé-thà-hin Burma A-mer-tha-hin ametlles Catalonia Almonds amido Italy Starch amigdala alatismena Greece Salted (45 g
per kg), unskinned, shelled almonds which have been marinated in lemon juice or citric acid solution and drained, then baked for 30 minutes at 180°C. Eaten as an appetizer.
amilbar de arce Spain Maple syrup amino acid An organic acid which is a building block of proteins. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its properties. 20 amino acids are incorporated in human tissue. Of these 12, or 11 in the case of rapidly growing infants, can be synthesized in the body; the remaining 8 or 9 (essential amino acids) must be obtained from food. High-class proteins contain the essential amino acids. They are in alphabetical order: alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, norleucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine.
amiral, à l’ France In the admiral’s style, i.e. garnished with a mixture of sliced truffles, mussels, lobster meat, oysters and crayfish tails
ami-shakushi Japan A fine wire mesh skimmer for cleaning deep-fat-frying oil or removing foam from soup
ammantato Italy Covered with another ingredients such as cheese, sauce, etc.; napped
ammiraglia, all’ Italy In the admiral’s style i.e.
containing fish or shellfish
ammollicato Italy Soaked and softened
ammonia A pungent irritating gas used in water solution as a cleaner and bleach. Often smelled on rotting fish and overripe cheese. ammonium bicarbonate An old-fashioned raising agent which releases carbon dioxide on heating or reaction with acid. Not in general use. Also called salts of hartshorn
ammonium carbonate See E503 ammonium chloride See E510 ammonium ferric citrate See E381 ammonium phosphatides Food additives
used as emulsifiers and stabilizers for cocoa
and chocolate products
ammonium polyphosphate See E545
ammonium sulphate The ammonium salt of sulphuric acid used as a yeast food
Amomum globosum Botanical name Chinese cardamom
Amomum melegueta Botanical name Grains of paradise
Amomum subulatum Botanical name Nepal cardamom
amoras Portugal Berries
Amorphophallus campanulatus Botanical name Elephant’s foot
Amorphophallus konjac Botanical name Devil’s taro, used for preparing black bean curd
amorphous sugar United States Noncrystalline sugar made by melting sucrose and cooling it rapidly to form a transparent glass-like material
amouille France Beestings
amourettes France The spinal marrow of veal and lamb, prepared by thorough cleaning followed by poaching for 30 minutes in a boiling vinegar court bouillon (NOTE: Literally ‘passing fancies’.)
amourettes de veau Tosca France Short lengths of cooked amourettes of veal mixed with macaroni, butter, grated Parmesan cheese and coulis of crayfish tails, carefully heated in a timbale, covered with coulis d’écrevisses (crayfish coulis) and garnished with amourettes
ampalaya Philippines Bitter gourd
ampil khui Cambodia Tamarind
ampil tum Cambodia Unripe tamarind
amriti South Asia A sweetmeat made from a besan batter deep-fried in the shape of small rings and soaked in a flavoured sugar syrup
amsoh galbi kui Korea Marinated and grilled short ribs of beef
amsterdamse korstjes Netherlands Spice cakes
amuse-gueule France Small appetizers usually served before or while the menu choice is being made (NOTE: Literally ‘mouthpleasers’.)
amydated pectin A synthetic derivative of pectin which is more stable than the parent product. See also E440(ii)
amyl acetate An ester formed from amyl alcohol and acetic acid used to flavour the confectionery item, pear drops (NOTE: Some say it has a banana flavour.)
amylase An enzyme (a naturally occurring catalyst of chemical reactions) found in saliva and gastric juices which breaks down starch (a polysaccharide) into smaller subunits which are further broken down by other enzymes or which can be directly absorbed, usually as glucose, into the blood stream. Strains obtained commercially by fermentation from Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis are used in the manufacture of syrups, in the brewing industry and generally in food manufacturing. Also called diastase
amyl butyrate An ester formed from amyl alcohol and butyric acid used as an artificial flavouring
amylolytic enzyme Any of an important class of enzymes that degrade starch to mono-, di-and polysaccharides. Important in bread-making.
amylopectin The main and more easily digested component of starch
amylose The minor and less easily digested constituent of starch
amyl valeriate An ester formed from amyl alcohol and valerianic acid with an apple-like flavour
an Japan A sweetened smooth or crunchy paste of ground adzuki beans
Anacardium occidentale Botanical name The cashew nut tree
anadama bread United States A yeast-raised bread containing cornmeal and molasses or black treacle
anadromous Used to describe fish which are born in a river, migrate to the sea to grow and return to their birth river to spawn. The
salmon is a common example. (NOTE: The opposite is catadromous)
anaerobe A microorganism which will grow and reproduce in the absence of air. Facultative anaerobes will grow with or without air. Strict (i.e. non-facultative) anaerobes are poisoned by the oxygen in the air. See also aerobe
anago Japan Conger or seawater eel; thin slices are used raw in sushi
anaheim chilli A fairly hot, long, green to yellow chilli pepper which is never dried. Also called guero, Californian chilli, California pepper
analcolico Italy Non-alcoholic drink
ananá South America, Spain Pineapple
ananas Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Sweden
ananâs Portugal Pineapple
Ananas Germany Pineapple
ananas à la créole France Peeled and cored pineapple is cooked in kirsch-flavoured sugar syrup and cut into thin semicircles, which are used to line a dome-shaped mould. The centre of the mould is filled with a layer of vanilla dessert rice followed by diced custard apple, pineapple and banana cooked in syrup to complete. The whole is chilled until set, demoulded, decorated with angelica and surrounded with poached bananas.
ananas à la royale France Pineapple prepared as for ananas georgette, but filled with fresh fruit salad flavoured with kirsch. The base of the pineapple is surrounded with alternate poached peaches and strawberries macerated in kirsch.
Ananas comosus Botanical name Pineapple ananas Condé France Pineapple poached and served on dessert rice with a fruit syrup
ananas georgette France The top of a large whole pineapple is removed and reserved. The centre of the pineapple is scooped out, chopped finely and mixed with an iced fruit mousse mixture made from cold syrup (35°Be, 1.86 kg per litre of water), pineapple purée, and crème chantilly. This mixture is replaced in the pineapple, covered with the top and the whole is allowed to set in the refrigerator.
Ananaskaltschale Germany A cold pineapple soup made from crushed pineapple boiled in a light sugar syrup, allowed to cool and stand, pushed through a strainer, mixed with white wine, chilled and garnished with a macédoine of pineapple steeped in sugar and lemon juice
ananas Ninon France A soufflé mould is filled with vanilla ice cream and a conical depression made from the centre to the outer edges. The depression is lined with overlapping slices of pineapple, and the centre heaped with wild strawberries covered with a purée of raspberries and sprinkled with chopped pistachios.
ananasso Italy Pineapple
ananas Virginie France Pineapple prepared as for ananas georgette, but with a strawberry mousse mixed with the diced flesh of the
pineapple as filling
ananász Hungary Pineapple
anar South Asia Pomegranate
anara Italy Duck
anardana South Asia The ground dried seeds of sour pomegranates used in North India as a souring agent in chutneys and curries, in fillings for bread and savoury pasties, and with braised vegetables and pulses
Anari A soft, white, unripened curd cheese from Cyprus, made from ewes’ milk. It has a slightly sweetish flavour and moist texture similar to the Greek Mizithra or Italian Ricotta and is eaten as a dessert.
anatra Italy Duck
anatra arrosto Italy Duck, blanched for 5 minutes, dried with paper then hot air (e.g. with a hair dryer), rubbed with ground rosemary, sage, salt and black pepper, stuffed with the same herbs mixed with chopped liver, roasted and served with sauce made from pan juices and the stuffing
anatra ripiena Italy Duck braised with a stuffing of meat, sausage, mushrooms and
anatrino Italy Duckling
anatto See annatto
anchoa Spain Anchovy
anchoïade France An anchovy paste from Provence, made with anchovies pounded or processed with olive oil and possibly garlic to make a dip for canapés
anchois France Anchovy anchois, beurre d’ See anchovy butter anchois, canapé d’ France Canapé with
anchois, sauce France Anchovy sauce
anchois à la parisienne France Fillets of desalted anchovies arranged in a multi-diamond pattern in the centre of a plate covered with a little vinaigrette mixed with soy sauce. The centre of the diamonds and the border are filled with separately chopped hard-boiled egg yolk, hard-boiled egg white and green herbs to give a pleasing pattern.
anchois aux poivrons France A hors d’oeuvre of anchovy fillets marinated in oil, alternating with strips of sweet pepper and decorated with chopped hard-boiled egg, parsley and capers
anchois de Norvège France Norwegian anchovies, preserved in brine
anchois des tamarins France A hors d’oeuvre composed of anchovy paupiettes, each topped with a black olive, arranged around a centre of grated warm potatoes seasoned with oil and vinegar and sprinkled with chopped fines herbes
anchois frais marinés France A hors d’oeuvre made from fresh anchovies salted for 2 hours, drained, plunged into hot fat to stiffen, then marinaded in oil with a little acid (lemon or vinegar) for 2 days. Served with a little of the marinade.
ancho pepper A mild, richly flavoured variety of pepper, Capsicum frutescens, usually dried for use in Latin American cooking
anchouiada France Anchovy fillets pounded with garlic, shallots, thyme and olive oil with a little vinegar, used as a flavouring or dip. Similar to bagna cauda.
anchovas Portugal Anchovies. Also called enchovas
Anchovis Germany Anchovy
anchovy A small Mediterranean fish of the herring family, Engraulis encrasicolus, up to 20 cm in length and fished in the Mediterranean and the bay of Biscay between January and September. Usually salted whole and used as a garnish or for flavouring. A similar fish, Stolephorus heterolobus, is found throughout Southeast Asia and used fresh, salted or dried and is one of the fish fermented to produce fish pastes and sauces.
anchovy butter A compound butter made from butter and anchovy fillets pounded together and sieved
anchovy essence A liquid extract of cured
and salted anchovies used for flavouring
anchovy fingers See allumettes aux anchois
anchovy paste Salted anchovies, vinegar, spices and water pounded together
anchovy paupiettes A hors d’oeuvre of flattened anchovy fillets, spread with a purée of cooked fish mixed with mayonnaise seasoned with cayenne, rolled into paupiettes and decorated with anchovy butter
anchovy sauce A rich fish velouté, thickened with egg yolk and cream or sauce normande without the butter and flavoured with anchovy; alternatively, a béchamel sauce with 2 tablespoons of anchovy essence per
litre. It may be finished with diced, dried and desalted anchovy fillets, and is used with fish.
anchovy toast England A savoury or appetizer made from rounds of bread fried to a pale straw, covered with anchovies and topped with chilled Devonshire or whipped cream and served immediately
an chun China Quail
an chun dan China Quail egg
ancidda Italy Eel (Sardinia)
ancien impérial France A soft mild cheese cast in squares. May be eaten fresh or ripened.
ancienne, à l’ France In the old style, i.e. with boiled rice, béchamel sauce and mushrooms
ancient egg Chinese preserved eggs
ancono Italy A soup made with fish, shellfish
and Denmark, Norway Duck
andaa Nepal Egg
andalouse, à l’ France In the Andalusian style, i.e. garnished with halves of grilled red pepper filled with rice cooked à la Grecque and slices of aubergine, 4 cm thick, with the centre hollowed out and filled with tomatoes sautéed in oil
andalouse, sauce England, France Mayonnaise mixed with tomato purée and garnished with julienned red sweet pepper
andalouse mayonnaise Mayonnaise mixed with tomato purée and the finely chopped flesh of skinned and cooked sweet red peppers. Served with roast veal, poultry and hard-boiled eggs.
Andalusian sauce See andalouse, sauce
ande South Asia Egg
andijvie Netherlands Endive
andouille France A large, black, pig-based sausage boiled in water then grilled, which may be served hot or cold, usually in thin slices and garnished with mashed potato. It is generally made from pork, tripe, pork chitterlings, calf mesentery, pepper, wine, onions and spices, depending on region. It may be white through various shades of brown to black and may be dried (sechée) or smoked (fumée).
andouille bretonne France Pig tripe and chitterlings, cut into strips a little shorter than the sausage, dry-cured in salt, pepper and spices or marinated in wine and herbs, mixed with half their combined weight of similar strips of hard pork fat, placed regularly or jumbled up in beef runners, tied, salted for a week, smoked for 3 days over apple wood, brushed off, floured and boiled in water for 2 hours before serving
andouille de Cambrai France A tripe sausage dating from 1767
andouille de campagne France The typical andouille containing about 50% pork shoulder meat, the remainder being chitterlings, tripe and seasonings
andouille de Nancy France Equal parts of calf mesentery and belly pork cut in 20-cmlong strips, treated with salt, pepper and spice or marinated in wine and herbs, drained, seasoned, possibly mixed with chopped onions and mushrooms sweated in lard, moistened with Madeira or white wine, stuffed into beef runners and tied. Cooked by pricking and simmering in water with aromatic vegetables and a bouquet garni, then left to cool in the cooking liquor.
andouille de Vire France As andouille bretonne but with fat bacon replacing the pork fat, chopped onion, shallots and parsley added and the whole seasoned and moistened with white wine. The strips are formed in bundles and placed neatly in beef runners with each bundle tied in place. The andouille may be salted in brine and/or smoked, but in all cases it is finally simmered in a bouillon for 3 hours.
andouille pur porc France Andouille made with seasoned pork shoulder meat and fat
andouillette France A small version of the andouille but usually containing only coarsely chopped chitterlings and tripe and purchased in the cooked state. Generally lightly slashed and grilled or fried and served hot with fried potatoes, mustard and onions.
andouillette à la lyonnaise France Andouillettes cut into 1 cm. slices, sautéed in very hot butter until browned, sliced onion added and coloured, seasoned, mixed well and finished with chopped parsley and a little vinegar.
andouillette à la strasbourgeoise France Grilled or fried andouillette served on a bed of sauerkraut accompanied by boiled potatoes
andouillette (à la) bourguignonne France Andouillettes cut into 1 cm. slices, sautéed in hot butter and lard until browned, fat drained off, and andouillettes served with melted well-seasoned snail butter.
andouillette de Savoie France An andouillette containing pork chitterlings, tripe and calf mesentery flavoured with cumin
andouillette de Troyes France An andouillette containing calf mesentery, udder, egg yolks, shallots, parsley, seasoning and nutmeg, moistened with white wine
andouillette fine de porc France Calf mesentery and lean bacon cut in pieces, simmered in stock with herbs and an onion clouté for 2 hours, removed, coarsely chopped and combined with the strained reduced cooking liquor, egg yolks and chopped shallots, mushrooms and parsley, sweated in lard, filled into casings and tied to form small sausages. May be brined and/or smoked before simmering in a bouillon.
andouille vigneronne France Soaked haricot beans put in a casserole with diced fat bacon and pork rind, carrots, onions, a bouquet garni and seasoning, covered with water and boiled with some wine for an hour, a previously cooked pork andouille added and the whole braised in the oven for 2 hours. The meat and beans are served separately.
ànec amb naps Catalonia Duck with turnips
añejo 1. Mexico A cheese made from cows’ or goats’ milk, well matured with a strong salty flavour 2. Spain Meat from 14 to 15 month old beef cattle
anelli Italy Rings of pasta cut from a tube about 1 cm. in diameter.
anellini Italy Tiny pasta rings used for soup, a
smaller version of anelli
anémona de mar Spain Sea anemone
anémone de mer France Sea anemone
anemone di mare Italy Sea anemone
aneth France Dill
Anethum graveolens Botanical name Dill
Anethum sowa Botanical name Indian dill
aneto Italy Dill
aneurin See vitamin B1
ange de mer France Angel fish
angel cake United States A fat-and-egg-yolkfree light sponge made by folding very low gluten cake flour sieved with cream of tartar and caster sugar into stiffly beaten egg whites. Usually baked in a ring mould. Also called angel food cake
angel fish A type of shark, Squatina squatina, with large pectoral fins which can be treated as skate wings. The tail is also thick and meaty with a few soft flexible bones. Also called angel shark, fiddle fish
angel flake coconut A much wider cut of desiccated coconut like large flakes
angel food cake See angel cake
angelica A tall parsley-like plant, Angelica archangelica or A. officinalis. The blanched, peeled and boiled stalks and leaf ribs are candied for use as a decoration.
Angelica archangelica Botanical name
Angelica officinalis Botanical name
Angelica sinensis Botanical name Dang gui. Also called Chinese angelica
angélique France Angelica
angelitter Schnüss Germany A soup made from bacon, young beans and milk
angelot France Angel fish
angelote Spain Angel fish
angel’s farts See fritole di lino
angel’s hair A very fine and thin noodle wrapped in skeins like wool. Also called
angel shark See angel fish
angels on horseback A savoury consisting of
oysters wrapped in streaky bacon, grilled and served on buttered toast
anges à cheval France Angels on horseback
angevine, à l’ France In the Anjou style, i.e. with the addition of local wine
anghiti South Asia A charcoal-burning brazier rather like a modern barbecue
angkak Philippines Dried and ground rice which has been coloured red/purple by fermentation with Monascus purpureus. Used to colour and flavour foods prepared from fish and cheese and to produce red rice wine.
anglaise, à l’ France In the English style, i.e. plain-cooked or, if deep-fried, coated with flour, egg and breadcrumbs (i.e. panéed)
anglaise, fish à l’ Fillets of fish, panéed, deep-fried at 185°C, drained and garnished with lemon wedges and a sprig of parsley and served with tartare sauce
anglaise, sauce England, France Crème à l’Anglaise
anglaise, sauce à l’ France Egg custard sauce
angled loofah The fruit of a climbing vine, Luffa acutangula, which grows to 3 m. It has a dull green skin with 10 longitudinal ridges and is harvested at up to 50 cm. It is slightly bitter and has a similar taste and texture to okra. It is peeled before use and may be steamed, fried or braised. See also loofah, club gourd. Also called Chinese okra, ridged gourd, ridged melon, pleated squash, angled luffa
angler fish United States Monkfish
Anglesey cake Wales Flour, butter, sugar and eggs (3:2:2:1) with 4 tbsp of baking powder per kg of flour and a little dried vine fruit are combined by the rubbing-in method and brought together with a little milk to form a stiff paste, then baked at 190°C in thinnish layers for 30 to 40 minutes. Each cake is sliced in half and eaten hot as a jam sandwich.
Anglesey eggs Wales Hard-boiled eggs mixed with cooked leeks and potatoes in a cheese sauce
angola Spain Sour milk
angoori petha South Asia A petha made with small green pumpkins the size of large
anguidda Italy Eel (Sicily)
anguila Spain Eel
anguila ahumada Spain Smoked eel
anguilla Italy Eel
anguilla alla fiorentina Italy Eels rolled in seasoned breadcrumbs and baked
anguilla alla griglia Italy Boned eels, cut in 10 cm pieces, seasoned, floured, oiled and grilled over charcoal until slightly charred
anguilla alla marinara Italy Eel in vinegar sauce
anguilla alla veneziana Italy Eel with tuna and lemon sauce
anguilla argentina Italy A silvery coloured eel, Anguilla anguilla
anguilla gialla Italy The common eel
anguilla in carpione Italy A hors d’oeuvre of pieces of eel. salted and oiled, grilled over charcoal until cooked and marinated in a mixture of oil, vinegar, bay leaves, garlic and seasoning for a minimum of 24 hours.
anguilla in teglia al pisello Italy Fried eel with tomato sauce and peas
anguille France Eel
anguille à la Beaucaire France Skinned boned eel stuffed with whiting and chopped mushroom forcemeat, sewn up, formed into an oval, then braised in white wine with chopped shallots, mushrooms, glazed button onions and brandy. Served from the cooking dish.
anguille à la ménagère France Cleaned and skinned eel cut into 8 cm. pieces, incised on each side, seasoned, grilled and served with a border of gherkins, accompanied with softened parsley butter mixed with a small amount of prepared mustard.
anguille à la meunière France Cleaned and skinned eels, cut in pieces, passed through seasoned flour, shallow-fried in butter, and finished with beurre noisette
anguille à la romaine France Cleaned and skinned eels cut into 5 cm pieces, stiffened in hot butter then stewed gently with peas, shredded lettuce and white wine, thickened with beurre manié and served immediately anguille à la rouennaise France A cleaned and skinned eel is incised both sides, formed into a ring and poached with a mirepoix of aromatic vegetables. When cooked, it is glazed by basting with the cooking liquor. It
is served with a centre garnish of mushrooms, poached oysters and poached soft roe, the garnish being coated with strained cooking liquor thickened with sauce espagnole, and the whole surrounded with shallow-fried smelts.
anguille à la tartare France Cleaned and skinned eel either whole or in portions, poached in white wine court bouillon, drained, panéed, deep-fried, garnished with fried parsley and gherkins and served with tartare sauce
anguille à l’escabèche France Pickled eel, fried in oil then cooled in aspic jelly
anguille au vert France Cleaned and skinned eels cut into 5 cm. pieces, placed on a bed of garden herbs (sorrel, nettle tops, parsley, salad burnet, sage, savory, chervil and tarragon) and butter; cooked until the flesh stiffens, then white wine, seasoning, and sage added; when cooking complete, liquor thickened with egg yolk and finished with lemon juice. Usually served cold.
anguille au vert à la flamande France Cleaned and skinned eels cut into 5 cm pieces, cooked in butter until flesh stiffens, then further cooked in beer and seasoning; towards the end of cooking chopped garden herbs (as in anguille au vert) added, and liquor thickened with arrowroot. Usually served cold.
anguille au vin blanc et paprika France Cleaned eels cut into 8 cm. pieces, placed in a shallow pan with sliced onions, a bouquet garni, garlic, seasoning, white wine and paprika, boiled, flamed with brandy, covered and cooked, then cooled in cooking liquor. The eel pieces are finally skinned, the fillets detached and covered with defatted and thickened cooking liquor.
anguille benoîton France Boned, skinned and filleted eel, cut into 10 cm. thin slices, twisted into spirals, passed through seasoned flour, deep-fried and piled up with fried parsley. Accompanied with a strained reduced red wine sauce made with shallots, parsley stalks and eel trimmings, thickened with butter.
anguille de mer France Conger eel anguille en matelote France Cleaned
skinned eel is cut in pieces, boiled with red or white wine, sliced onions, bouquet garni, garlic, and seasoning, flamed with brandy
and cooked until done in a tightly closed pan. The cooking liquor is strained and, if white, reduced and thickened with a fish velouté and garnished with button onions, crayfish and croûtons (marinière); if red, it is thickened with beurre manié and garnished with crayfish and croûtons.
anguille frite France Fried eel. Small skinned eels, incised both sides, folded into figures of eight and skewered, deep-fried and garnished with fried parsley.
anguille frite à l’anglaise France Cleaned, skinned, boned and filleted eel cut into thin slices, marinated with seasoning, chopped parsley, oil and lemon juice, panéed and deep-fried, finished with anchovy butter and served immediately accompanied with sauce bâtarde
anguille fumée France Smoked eel, served with skin and bone removed and cut into sections
anguille in salsa Italy Small fried fish marinated in vinegar
anguille pompadour France Cleaned and skinned eel, incised both sides, formed into a ring, cooked in white wine court bouillon and cooled in the cooking liquor; then drained, dried, coated with a mixture of Villeroi and Soubise sauce, panéed and deep-fried until heated through and browned. Served with fried parsley and croquettes of pommes dauphine, accompanied with tomato-flavoured béarnaise sauce.
anguillette France Small eel, a speciality of the Basque country
anguria Italy Water melon
Angus fish soup Scotland A soup made from fresh haddock heads, boiled, skinned then simmered with aromatic vegetables, turnips, parsley and seasoning for 20 minutes, strained onto a white roux and finished with milk, thyme, chopped parsley and a liaison of eggs and cream
Angus potatoes Scotland A dish of baked potatoes from which the cooked interiors have been removed and mixed with flaked Arbroath smokie flesh, butter, milk and seasoning, before being returned to the cases. These are then heated through in the oven.
anho Portugal Lamb
anhydrate, to United States To dehydrate
anice Italy Anice (NOTE: Semi di anice is aniseed.)
Anice stellato Italy Star anise
anicini Italy Aniseed biscuits from Sardinia
anijs Netherlands Anise
animelle Italy Sweetbreads
animelle con limone e capperi Italy Poached calf’s sweetbreads, sliced, seasoned and floured, sautéed in butter until golden, mixed with capers and lemon juice and served with the pan juices and chopped parsley
animelles France Testicles, usually of oxen or sheep, the latter also being known as sheep’s fry. Prepared by scalding, skinning and soaking in running water, then marinated and deep-fried or treated as kidneys. Also called frivolités
anis France, Philippines Aniseed
anise A half-hardy annual umbelliferous plant, Pimpinella anisum, related to the plants which produce cumin, dill and fennel. It grows erect or prostrate to about 45 cm. The seeds are known as aniseed. The flowers and fresh leaves may be used in salads and as a garnish. The plant is sometimes known as aniseed.
aniseed The aromatic, oval seeds of the anise plant with a sweet liquorice-like flavour. Used in cakes, for liqueurs and in Indian cookery and as a general flavouring. First mentioned in the written literature in 1500 BC by the Egyptians. Also called anise
aniseed myrtle Australia The leaves of this native myrtle, Backhousia anisata, have a strong aniseed flavour with a eucalyptus aftertaste. It is related to the lemon myrtle and grows in the coastal rain forest. The leaves are used either fresh or dried, whole or ground in meat dishes, desserts and baked goods. Since the essential oils are volatile, it is usually added just before service. The essential oil can be bought
anise fern Sweet cicely
anise pepper A Chinese spice made from the ground dried red berries of the feathery-leaved prickly ash tree, Xanthoxylum piperitum. It has a pronounced spicy-woody smell and a numbing taste and is one of the constituents of five-spice powder much used in Chinese cooking. See also sansho. Also called Sichuan pepper, Szechuan pepper, Chinese pepper, Chinese aromatic pepper, Japanese pepper, xanthoxylum, fagara
anithi South Asia Dill seed
anitra Italy Duck
anka Sweden Duck
ankerias Finland Eel
anko Japan A sweet bean paste made from adzuki beans, blanched and simmered for 1 to 1.5 hours until soft and passed though a sieve into a little water. This water is removed by squeezing in muslin, and the paste, combined with sugar, equal in weight to the original dried beans, and a little salt, is worked over a low heat until glossy and thick.
annanas South Asia Pineapple
annatto A bright orange permitted food colour, E160(b), made from the fruit pulp of a South American tree, Bixa orellana, like bixin and
norbixin. Must be acidified before use. Also called anatto
annatto lard Red coloured lard used in Filipino cooking. Made by frying annatto seeds in the lard then discarding them.
annatto seed The seeds of the annatto fruits of Bixa orellana, usually fried in oil or lard to impart a subtle flavour and red colour to food. After cooking the seeds are discarded.
annegato Italy Simmered in wine
annona Custard apple
Annot France A ewes’ or goats’ milk cheese
anolini Italy Small, half-circle-shaped, stuffed pasta similar to ravioli. The stuffing always contains meat and is often a well reduced and sieved meat stew.
anona Custard apple
Anona cherimolia Botanical name Cherimoya
Anona diversifolia Botanical name Ilama
Anona muricata Botanical name Soursop
Anona purpurea Botanical name Soncoya
Anona reticulata Botanical name Bullock’s heart
Anona spp. Botanical name Custard apples and related fruits
Anona squamosa Botanical name Sweet sop
anone France Custard apple
ansarino Spain Gosling
Anschovis Germany Anchovy
Ansgar Germany A milder variety of Tilsit cheese made in the west of Germany
ansjos Norway Anchovy
ansjovis Netherlands, Sweden Anchovy
anthocyanin, anthocyan A glucoside plant pigment extracted from grape skins which is red in acid and blue in alkaline conditions. It forms coloured complexes with metals e.g. grey with iron, green with aluminium and blue with tin, hence the off colours in e.g. canned pears where its reaction with tin gives the pears a pink colour. See also E163
anthoxanthan A colouring compound in potatoes and onions which is colourless in acid and yellow in alkaline conditions
antibiotics Chemicals produced by various moulds which can kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms. As they are often incorporated in animal feeds, residues may occur in the milk or flesh of the animal. The limits of these residues are strictly controlled as continuous ingestion could develop antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in the human gut.
antiboise, à l’ France In the Antibes style, i.e. garnished with garlic, cheese and sometimes sardines
antica, all’ Italy In the old-fashioned, classic style
anticaking agent A compound added to powdered foods to prevent their particles sticking together. E numbers 530 to 578 are anticaking agents.
anticuchos South America Kebabs made from marinated ox hearts brushed with a hot chilli sauce and grilled. Common in Peru.
antimycotic Referring to the action of compounds which kill, slow down or prevent the growth of moulds, e.g. calcium propionate
antin, fish d’ Poached white fish in a sauce. See also bréval, fish
antioxidant A chemical compound of synthetic or natural origin which retards the rate of reaction of the oxygen in the air with foods, thus slowing down the development of off flavours in fats and the colouring of cut fruit, etc. E numbers 300 to 321. Typical examples are vitamin E (from soya beans), vitamin C (from citrus fruit or made synthetically), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) and propyl gallate. The last three are synthetic.
antipasti almagro Italy Seafood salad
antipasti assortiti Italy Mixed antipasti of ham, salami, anchovies, olives, fruit, etc.
antipasto Italy Starter, hors d’oeuvre, first course of a meal (NOTE: The plural is antipasti.)
antipasto alla genovese Italy Young broad beans with sausage
antispattering agent A compound such as lecithin which, when added to fat, prevents spattering due to water droplets
antistaling agent A compound such as sucrose stearate or glycerol which apparently slows down the staling of baked goods by softening the crumb of the bread
antojitos Mexico Small portions of classical Mexican dishes served as snack food for street eating or as appetizers or starters (NOTE: Literally ‘what you fancy’.)
añu A South American knobbly yellow tuber from a perennial climbing plant. See also ysaño
anversoise, à l’ France In the Antwerp (Anvers) style, i.e. garnished with hop shoots
anxove Catalonia Anchovy
Anzac biscuits Australia Biscuits made with rolled oats, self-raising flour, sugar, butter and golden syrup (2:2:2:2:1) and a little bicarbonate of soda dissolved in water. All the ingredients are melted together, sometimes with dessicated coconut added.
AOC See appellation d’origine contrôlée aojiso Japan See green shiso aole Italy A fresh water fish aonegi Japan Spring onions aonori Japan Green flaked or shredded nori
used as a seasoning aoshiso Japan See green shiso aotogarashi Japan A small green hot pepper aoyagi Japan 1. A round clam used raw or
lightly cooked for sushi 2. A large clam, Mactra chinensis, about 4 cmby8 cm and 5 cm thick, used throughout Japan for sashimi, sunomono and kakiage. Also called bakagai
aoyose Japan A natural green food colouring extracted from spinach leaves apaz onion United States An edible, small wild onion
apee United States A biscuit (cookie) whose distinguishing feature is the use of sour cream in the batter (NOTE: The biscuit is named from the initials of its creator, Ann Page.)
apelsin Sweden Orange, the fruit apem West Africa The Ghanaian name for baby plantain aperitif An alcoholic drink taken before a
meal Apfel Germany Apple Apfelbettelmann Germany Chopped, peeled
and cored apples, well sprinkled with sugar, layered alternately in an ovenproof dish with a mixture of fine pumpernickel crumbs, sugar, butter and chopped nuts (3:3:2:1) flavoured with cinnamon and lemon zest, starting and finishing with a breadcrumb mixture layer, topped with butter and baked at 175°C until apples are soft
Ananaskaltschale, but with cooked apples
rubbed through the strainer and garnished
with diced apples and sultanas simmered in
a light syrup
Apfelkren Austria Apple and horseradish sauce made from cooking apples simmered with sugar and lemon juice, mashed and mixed with shredded horseradish from the outer part of the root. Served with Viennese boiled beef (Tafelspitz).
Apfelkuchen Germany An open apple tart made with a slightly sweetened pastry flavoured with lemon zest and brought together with egg yolks. The base is coated with breadcrumbs mixed with melted butter, followed by sliced cooking apples and topped with currants soaked in rum. This is baked at 175°C for 10 minutes, then filled with a sweetened egg custard made with cream, sprinkled with sugar and butter and baked until the custard is set and browned.
Apfelmus Germany Stewed apple
Apfelpfannkuchen Germany A pancake with an apple filling
Apfelschmarren Austria Pancake batter mixed with diced apple, cooked (about 1 cm thick) until brown on both sides, broken up and sprinkled with caster sugar
Apfelschnitze Germany Apple fritter
Apfelsine Germany Orange, the fruit
Apfelstrudel Austria Strudel (filo) pastry rolled around a mixture of chopped raw cooking apples, sultanas, caster sugar and chopped nuts, sealed and baked. The pastry may be covered on the inside with grated nuts or fried dry white breadcrumbs. Also called
Apfeltorte Germany Apple cake
apielsiny v romye z pryanostyami Russia Oranges with spiced rum. Peeled, depithed and sliced oranges, marinated and served in a sugar syrup flavoured with cloves and rum.
apio 1. Arracacha 2. Spain Celery
apio-nabo Spain Celeriac
Apios tuberosa Botanical name Arracacha
Apium graveolens Botanical name Wild celery
Apium graveolens var. dulce Botanical name Celery
apog Philippines Lime (calcium hydroxide)
à point France Medium rare, a degree of cooking meat or fish so that protein at the centre of the piece is coagulated but not discoloured or hardened
apon West Africa The kernels of the wild mango tree used, crushed, as a thickener. See also ogbono
appa South Asia, Sri Lanka Soft spongy breads made from a ground rice, rice flour and coconut milk batter or dough, raised using the fermenting sap of the coconut palm (although yeast may be substituted) and cooked in small, greased and covered wok-like pans. Eaten for breakfast. See also string hoppers
apparecchiato Italy 1. Prepared. Used of food. 2. Laid. Used of the table.
appareil France Food mixture or items for preparing a dish, e.g. appareil à crêpes ‘pancake batter’
appel Netherlands Apple
28 appelbeignet Netherlands Apple fritter
äppel-fläsk Sweden Panéed strips of derinded pork belly, fried until brown, layered in a casserole with sweated sliced onions and raw, cored but unpeeled, slices of apple, seasoned, moistened with pan juices and water, and simmered with a lid on for 30 minutes. Served with boiled potatoes.
appellation d’origine France The French certificate of origin for foodstuffs, especially wine and cheese. There are only 27 French cheeses entitled to this certificate. See also cheese certification (NOTE: Literally ‘label of origin’.)
appellation d’origine contrôlée France The French designation that a wine or cheese has an appellation d’origine which guarantees the origin of the grapes and the yield. Also called AOC
appelmoes Netherlands Apple sauce
äppelmos Sweden Apple sauce
appelsiini Finland Orange, the fruit
appelsin Denmark, Norway Orange, the fruit
appeltaart Netherlands Apple cake
Appenzell Switzerland Appenzeller
Appenzeller Switzerland A strong, slightly bitter, semi-hard, scalded-curd cheese made from whole cows’ milk. It is cast in large rounds (6 to 8 kg), and matured in brine with wine and spices for 3 to 6 months to give it its characteristic flavour. It contains 43% water, 28% fat and 26% protein. Also called Appenzell
Appenzellerli Switzerland A spiced sausage from Appenzell. See also Knackerli
appertization The term for the heat-processing of foods at temperatures above 120°C, in particular, retorting and high temperature short time (HTST) processing. This process does not guarantee complete sterility but any spores present should be non-pathogenic and unable to grow in the processed food environment.
appertize, to To subject to heat treatment by retorting (121°C) or high temperature short time (HTST) processing (132°C and above)
appetite The desire for food evoked by hunger and the taste, smell or appearance of various foodstuffs
appetitost Denmark A sour buttermilk cheese
appetizer A general name given to small items of food served before or at the beginning of a meal or at cocktail parties
apple The fruit of the apple tree, Malus sylvestris var. domestica, which requires cool winters to fruit. There are thousands of varieties but only about fifty are commercially available. Dessert varieties are sweetish, sometimes combined with acid, used for
eating raw, and, since they keep their shape on cooking, also used for tarts and in other cases where the shape of the cut fruit is important. Cooking varieties are generally acid and become soft and mushy when boiled, stewed or baked.
äpple Sweden Apple
apple amber England An 18th-century dish consisting of peeled chopped apples boiled in water with sugar, lemon juice and lemon zest. After cooking the apples are mixed with whole beaten eggs and baked in the oven with a puff pastry cover.
apple amber pudding England A shortcrust pastry case filled with a sweetened apple purée mixed with lemon juice and lemon zest, topped with meringue and baked
apple banana The small sweet fruit of a tropical herb of the genus Musa with a flavour similar to a mixture of pineapple and apple
appleberry Australia The green/yellow fruit of a creeper, Billardiera cymosa and B. scandiens. It is cylindrical, about 2–3 cm long, and has a fuzzy skin containing numerous seeds dispersed through the pulpy flesh. The ripe fruits which fall off the creeper have a mild aniseed flavour and can be eaten fresh or used in sauces and baked desserts.
apple bread England A Derbyshire bread made from dough kneaded with sweetened apple purée prior to proving
apple brown Betty United States Stewed apple layered with toasted butter-soaked cake crumbs
apple butter See apple cheese
apple cake See Norfolk apple cake
apple charlotte A dessert made from apples cooked in butter and sugar flavoured with grated lemon zest and ground cinnamon, placed in a mould lined with stale bread soaked in melted butter or with browned bread crumbs, covered in same, baked in the oven and served with apricot or custard sauce
apple cheese England Whole apples cut so as to break open the pips, cooked until soft in cider, passed through a coarse sieve to allow the pip kernels to pass through, then cooked with an equal amount of sugar and a clove until of coating consistency. Also called apple butter
apple corer The tube-shaped implement used to remove the core from apples
apple cream bun England A large choux pastry spherical bun filled with whipped cream into which slices of apple poached in syrup have been folded
apple crumble Apples, prepared as for apple charlotte, with a crumble topping baked in the oven
apple cucumber A distinctive variety of almost spherical cucumber, up to the size of an orange
apple curd A fruit curd flavoured with puréed unsweetened apples, lemon juice and lemon zest
apple dumpling Cored apples filled with a mixture of butter, caster sugar and possibly dried fruit, cinnamon, etc., are enclosed in short pastry. The tops are decorated and egg-washed. The pastry is pierced and the dumplings are baked in a hot oven for 15 minutes.
apple flan The base of a cooked flan case is covered with apples cooked as for apple charlotte and finished in a variety of ways e.g. by being covered with other fruits, nuts or a purée or mousse of candied chestnuts, by being glazed either with apricot syrup or melted redcurrant jelly, or by being covered with meringue or dredged with icing sugar. (In the latter two cases, the flan is cooked in the oven to brown.).
apple fritters As for apricot fritters but substituting peeled, cored and sliced apple
apple frushie Scotland A plate pie made with shortcrust pastry and a lattice top. For the filling cooking apples are peeled, cored and sliced and laid evenly over the base, sprinkled with rose water and covered evenly with honey. The pie is baked at 200°C for 25 to 30 minutes, dredged with caster sugar and served hot with cream.
apple hedgehog England An old Dorset dessert of peeled and cored apples which are cooked in a pan with three quarters of their weight in sugar and a little water until the sugar forms caramel. They are then poured into a buttered mould, turned out and, when set, stuck with almond flakes and served with cream or custard.
apple mayonnaise Scandinavia Equal quantities of mayonnaise and slightly sweetened apple purée flavoured with horseradish sauce
applemint One of the common culinary varieties of mint, Mentha suaveolens, with hairy apple-scented bright green leaves, used for making mint sauce, mint jelly, stuffings, salads, etc. and as a general flavouring herb. Also called Egyptian mint
äpplen Sweden Apples apple of the Orient Persimmon apple pandowdy United States An apple pie
made in a dish with spiced sliced apples, covered in a pastry crust
apple pudding A suet-pastry-lined basin filled with sliced apples mixed with sugar, ground cinnamon, grated lemon zest, sealed with more suet pastry, covered with a cloth or lid and steamed or boiled for approximately 2 hours
apple sauce Peeled, cored and chopped apples, sweated in butter and a little water, possibly with ground cinnamon and then sieved, liquidized or whisked to a smooth sauce
apple sauce cake 1. England A Somerset cake made from a spiced cake mixture using brown sugar to which unsweetened apple sauce is added prior to folding in the flour, spices, salt and dried fruit. Topped with vanilla butter icing. Also called Somerset apple cake 2. United States A cake containing mixed dried fruit, nuts and apple sauce
apple schnitz United States Dried apple slices used in Pennsylvanian cooking originated by German immigrants
apple slim Ireland A griddle-cooked double-crust apple tart
apple snow Apple pulp or purée mixed with meringue
apple soup England Chopped whole apples simmered in mutton broth passed through a strainer and seasoned with ginger and salt. May be reheated with pearl barley until the barley is soft.
apple strudel See Apfelstrudel
apple turnover Rounds of 3 mm puff pastry, egg-washed, one half of each round heaped with a mixture of finely sliced apples, sugar and cinnamon, other half folded over and sealed, egg-washed, baked and glazed with icing sugar just before finishing
Applewood England A medium-flavoured Cheddar cheese from Somerset, flavoured with an extract of applewood smoke or smoked over applewood and coated with paprika
aprapransa West Africa A thick palm nut stew from Ghana containing cooked cow peas, palm butter or peanut butter, tomatoes, toasted maize flour and lemon juice. Usually served on special occasions with smoked herrings.
apricot A round, orange-coloured fruit with a rich aromatic flavour from a tree, Prunus armeniaca, of the plum family. Suitable for stewing, for sorbets and for jam-making; often preserved by drying.
apricot flan Flan ring lined with sugar paste, pierced, sugared, filled with neatly arranged half apricots, sugared, baked at 210°C, ring
removed, rebaked and glazed as for apple flan
apricot fritters Firm but not overripe halved apricots, sprinkled with sugar and macerated with kirsch, brandy or rum, dried, dipped in batter and deep-fried, drained, dredged with icing sugar and glazed
apricot glaze Sugar syrup boiled to 115°C, mixed with approximately half its quantity of apricot purée, reboiled to 110°C and sieved
apricot ice cream Bombe andalouse
apricot kernel The small flat kernels of the apricot stone which must be blanched in boiling water and dried in a warm oven to detoxify them. Used in Chinese cooking. Also called Chinese almond
apricot marmalade See apricot glaze
apricot sauce Apricot jam boiled with water and lemon juice, thickened as required with corn flour and strained. Alternatively, very ripe or drained stewed apricots sieved and thinned with sugar syrup (28°Be, 1.1 kg sugar per litre water) and reduced to a coating consistency.
apricot stuffing United Kingdom Roughly chopped destoned apricots mixed with an equal quantity of fine white breadcrumbs seasoned and moistened with water if required. Used for stuffing hams before they are covered in pastry.
aprikos Sweden Apricot aprikose Denmark, Norway Apricot Aprikose Germany Apricot Aprikosenkaltschale Germany As Ananas
Kaltschale but with ripe apricots and ground, skinned apricot kernels pushed through the strainer and garnished with slices of skinned destoned apricots
aprikos och appel soppa Scandinavia Apricot and apple soup consisting of apricots (fresh or reconstituted dried), cooking apples, celery, parsley and bay leaf, simmered in a light stock, celery and herbs discarded, the whole then liquidized or passed through a sieve, cream added and garnished with toasted almonds
apu lapu Philippines Garoupa, the fish
apulid Philippines Water chestnut
ap yeung cheung China A sausage from Hong Kong containing lean and fat pork, preserved duck livers, sugar, soya sauce and rice wine
Arabica coffee A type of coffee from the bush Coffea arabica, with a finer flavour than the higher yielding robusta varieties
arachide France, Italy Peanut
arachidonic acid A polyunsaturated fatty acid which cannot be synthesized by the human body and is therefore one of the essential fatty acids (EFA’s). It is found in egg yolks and fish oils. Its lack in infant milk formulae is thought to cause retarded brain development in new born infants. Also called
Arachis hypogaea Botanical name The groundnut plant whose seed pods, which grow underground, are the source of peanuts
arachis oil Peanut oil
Aragackij A round, scalded-curd, semi-hard, slicing cheese from Armenia made with ewes’ and goats’ milk matured for 2 months and with a thin dark bluish rind. Contains 40% water, 30% fat and 25% water.
Aragón Spain A semi-hard, firm cheese made with goats’ and/or ewes’ milk curdled with rennet, shaped into cones, dry-salted and the firm paste containing a few holes ripened for 1 week. Also called Tronchón
aragosta Italy Lobster (NOTE: Also used of langouste, rock lobster, spiny lobster, crayfish and most species of the genus Palinurus.)
aragosta alla fra diavolo Italy Lobster baked with a spicy tomato sauce
aragosta alla griglia con burro Italy Grilled lobster with melted butter
aragosta americana Italy Florida lobster
aragosta atlantica Italy Large pink spiny
lobster of the genus Palinurus
aragosta bollita Italy Cold boiled lobster served with a vegetable salad
aragosta mediterranea Italy Spiny lobster
araignée de mer France Spider crab
Aralar A smoked ewes’ milk cheese from the Basque country. See also Idiazabal
arame Japan A brown variety of seaweed from Japan, Eisenia bicyclis, which is similar to wakame. It is dried, cut into strips and used as a vegetable, in soup or for flavouring. Also called sea oak
arance caramellate Italy A dessert of peeled, depithed and sliced oranges coated with sugar syrup and decorated with caramelized
arancia Italy Orange, the fruit
arancia cardinale Italy Peeled and segmented oranges dressed with salt and olive oil
arancini Italy Croquettes made of savoury rice with butter and saffron wrapped around a filling e.g. meat and tomatoes, chicken liver and tomatoes, mozzarella cheese and tomatoes or ham and peas, and then fried
arancio amaro Italy Seville orange arándano Spain Bilberry arándano agrio Spain Cranberry
aranygaluska Hungary A sweet dumpling
Araucaria A genus of pine trees which are the source of pine nuts
araw West Africa A type of couscous made from millet. See also karaw
arbi Malaysia, South Asia Yam
arborio rice A medium-grain, superfino, pearly rice grown in northern Italy, used in Italian cooking and for making risotto. It cooks in 20 minutes and absorbs five times its weight of liquid. Starch is released during cooking and makes the grains creamy.
Arbroath fillet See Arbroath smokie
Arbroath smokie Scotland The original gutted, deheaded haddock or whiting, salted for 2 hours, hot smoked in less than an hour over oak and about 250 g in weight. Can be eaten cold or hot and does not need recooking. Also called Arbroath fillet
Arbroath-style lobster Scotland A dish of sliced, precooked lobster flesh, mussels and shrimps cooked in butter. These are bound with a reduced wine-and velouté-based sauce, seasoned, flavoured with lemon juice, placed in lobster shells lined with fried mushroom slices, covered with sauce and grated cheese, then glazed and garnished with parsley, anchovies and poached turned mushrooms.
arbutus The fruit of the strawberry tree, Arbutus unedo, used in preserves and to make an alcoholic drink. Not suitable for dessert purposes.
Arbutus unedo Botanical name Arbutus arbuz Russia Watermelon arca di noe Italy A small shell fish archangels on horseback United Kingdom
As angels on horseback but substituting scallops for oysters
Archestratus The Greek author of the oldest surviving cookbook, ‘The Life of Luxury’, dating from 300 BC
archiduc, à l’ France In the Archduke’s style,
i.e. coated with a paprika-flavoured white
archimede A pasta shape. See also fusilli
arctic char A type of trout, Salvelinus alpinus, found in both fresh and sea water in the northern hemisphere. It is better tasting than trout and is best simply baked and served with butter. See also potted char
Arctium lappa Botanical name Burdock Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Botanical name
ard bhoona South Asia A dry pot roast employing butter only. The meat is first seared then placed in a heavy casserole with a tight-fitting lid with enough butter to cover
the meat. Cooking is completed in the oven and more butter is added at intervals. Particularly suitable for white meats.
ardennaise, à l’ France In the Ardennes style, i.e. including juniper berries
Ardennes ham A high-quality cured Belgian ham ranked alongside Parma, York and Bayonne hams. Eaten raw.
ardilla Spain Squirrel
ardisone rice Italy A moderately priced semi-fino oval and slightly sticky rice suitable for minestrone
Areca catechu Botanical name Betel nut palm
areca nut Betel nut
areganato Italy With oregano
Arekanuss Germany Betel nut
Arenga pinnata Botanical name Sugar palm
Arenga sacchifera Botanical name Sugar palm
arenque Spain Herring
arenque en escabeche Spain Pickled
arepa Central America A common street food on Margarita island, Venezuela, made from white corn meal, salt and water to form a soft moist dough. This can be deep-fried in small balls stuffed with cheese, meat, fish or beans, or formed into 2.5 cm thick patties and fried on an unoiled griddle until crusted on either side, then finished in the oven at 180°C for about 20 minutes until hollow. When hollow, they are served hot with butter or jam.
arequipe South America A dessert made from a caramelized milk and sugar mixture, best made by boiling a tin of sweetened condensed milk for 2 hours. Also called doce de leite, dulce de leche, cajeta de celaya, manjar blanco, natillas piuranas (NOTE: This dessert was quite common in the UK during World War II. Its name derives either from the Peruvian town of Arequipa or from arequipe, the Andalusian word for rice pudding.)
arête France Fish bone
argan North Africa The plum-sized fruit of the argan tree, Arganta sideroxylon, which grows in the south of Morocco. These fruits are pressed for a highly prized oil, which can be used for cooking, but is more often used in the way that Westerners would use the finest olive oil. See also amalu
argenteuil, à l’ France In the Argenteuil style,
i.e. garnished with asparagus argentina Italy Argentine, a small fish similar to a sardine argentine A small silvery fish similar in
appearance to a sardine or a smelt but from a different family. The three varieties of
commerce are the lesser, the larger and the deep sea argentine, which latter comes from Japan. They may be grilled or fried.
Argentinian jujube A species of jujube which is used for the Bolivian drink chicha. Also called mistol jujube
arginine One of the non-essential amino acids
arhar South Asia Pigeon peas
arhrot South Asia Walnut
ariégeoise, à l’ France In the Ariège style, i.e. containing salt pork, kidney beans, cabbage and potatoes
arigusta Italy Crawfish, crayfish
aringa Italy Herring (NOTE: The plural is aringhe.)
aringa alla casalinga Italy A hors d’oeuvre of sliced pickled herrings mixed with slices of salad onions, cooking apples and boiled waxy potatoes, bound with cream and chopped parsley
aringhe Italy Herrings
arisi pori South Asia Puffed rice
arista Italy Loin of pork
arlésienne, à l’ France In the Arles style, i.e. garnished with 1-cm-thick aubergine slices seasoned, floured and fried in oil, onion rings floured and deep-fried and peeled tomatoes sautéed in butter
Arles salami A variety of French salami
Armada Spain A semi-hard, sharp-tasting cheese made from cows’ colostrum and matured for two months. Also called Calostro, Sobado
armadillo sausage United States A Texan speciality sausage made from 4 parts armadillo meat to 1 part breadcrumbs flavoured with allspice, sage, crushed black peppercorns and salt
armagnac France A brandy from the Southern Bordeaux region, used for flavouring
Armenian bole Very finely powdered ferric oxide (iron oxide) used to colour food orange or red. See also E172
Armenian bread A standard bread containing sesame and toasted sunflower seeds made into flat loaves and spread with a paste of grated Parmesan cheese, eggs, cumin, chopped walnuts and pepper before baking but after proving
Armenian cucumber United States A sweetish cucumber which grows in a coiled shape 25 to 50 cm long
Armenian wax pepper chilli United States A long waxy-skinned yellow chilli pepper with a relatively mild sweet taste
arme Ritter Germany French toast, pain perdue
Armillaria edodes Botanical name Matsutake
Armillaria mellea Botanical name Honey fungus
armleti Italy Savoury dumplings from Tuscany
armoricaine, à l’ France In the Armorican style, i.e. with brandy, white wine, onions and tomatoes (NOTE: Armorica is the old name for Brittany.)
armotte France Maize flour cooked and mixed with goose fat; similar to polenta and eaten as a staple carbohydrate in Gascony
armyanski manny pudding Russia A pudding made from semolina boiled until cooked in white wine and water (2:3, 120 g semolina per litre of liquid) sweetened and flavoured with sugar, orange juice and zest and lemon zest. Egg yolks are then mixed in off the heat followed by stiffly beaten egg whites, which are folded in. The whole is then baked in a mould in a bain-marie at 170°C for 1 hour, cooled slightly, demoulded and served with lemon-juice-flavoured syrup and chopped pistachio nuts.
arni palikari Greece Fried lamb chump chops with fried chopped onions and garlic, cooked en papillote after layering with tomato slices and oregano, potato slices, seasoning and Faseri or Gruyère cheese slices before wrapping. Papillotes brushed with oil and baked for 1.5 hours at 180°C.
arni se lathoharto Greece Small steaks from boned leg of lamb, larded with garlic and cooked en papillote for 3 hours in the oven with olive oil, red wine, seasoning, chopped fresh marjoram and dried oregano
arni yiouvetsi Greece A trimmed leg of lamb is piquéed with sliced garlic, rubbed with lemon juice, oregano and seasoning, and roasted with chopped onion. The lamb is reserved. The defatted pan juices are mixed with tomato purée, seasoning and cooked pasta, sprinkled with grated Parmesan or Kefalotiri cheese, and reheated in the oven, before being served around the roast lamb.
Arnold Bennett omelette An omelette covered with flaked smoked haddock mixed with grated Parmesan cheese, cooked one side, top side dressed with cream and grilled, served unfolded (NOTE: The dish was named after the novelist Arnold Bennett and created for him at the Savoy.)
aroma The pleasant fragrance of food caused by a complex mixture of volatile chemicals released during, or produced by, the cooking process, but lost by evaporation and steam distillation; hence the necessity for careful control of the time and temperature of the cooking process. The aroma of food has important effects on both the feeling of wellbeing and on the digestive system.
aromate France Aromatic material, e.g. herbs, spices, etc.
aromatic With a fragrant, slightly spicy and slightly pungent smell. Used of herbs, spices and vegetables which impart flavour and aroma to a dish.
aromatic sauce White bouillon, boiled and infused with thyme, savory, marjoram, chives, chopped shallots, peppercorns and grated nutmeg for 10 minutes, strained, thickened with a blond roux, cooked out and finished with lemon juice and chopped and blanched tarragon and chervil
aromatic vegetables Carrots, leeks, onions and celery. Used for flavouring stocks, sauces, soups, etc.
aromatize, to To add flavours and aromas to an aqueous or oily liquid by respectively boiling or frying herbs and spices in it and then removing them
Arômes de Lyon France A strong-tasting cheese made from goats’ and/or cows’ milk, ripened in white wine for a month, dried for a month and wrapped in chestnut or plane leaves
aromi Italy Culinary herbs
Aroserli Switzerland Pork and beef-paste sausages. See also saucisses d’Arosa
arpajonnaise, à l’ France In the Arpajon style, i.e. including haricot beans
arracacha 1. A leguminous plant, Apios tuberosa, from North America whose roots can be cooked liked potatoes and also used in desserts. Also called apio 1 2. The Peruvian carrot, Arracacia xanthorrhiza, a native of Colombia whose roots are used like potatoes or turned into a flour used for bread and pancakes
Arracacha, the Peruvian carrot
arracanato Italy With oregano
arraia Portugal Skate
Arran cheese Scotland A hard, moist, close-textured, rindless cheese made on the Scottish island of Arran from whole cows’ milk. The usual size is just less than 1 kg.
Arran potato salad Scotland Cooked and cubed waxy potatoes and beetroot mixed with finely chopped shallot and chopped herbs and dressed with a vinaigrette. Cooked peas or broad beans are arranged around the edge of the bowl.
arrayán Spain 1. Myrtle 2. Bog myrtle arricchito Italy Enriched, e.g. with cream
arròs a banda Catalonia Rice cooked in a fish broth
arròs a la cubana Catalonia Boiled rice with tomato sauce, egg and banana
arroser France 1. To baste 2. To sprinkle with a liquid
arròs negre Catalonia The famous Catalan dish of cooked rice, squid, monkfish, shellfish, onions, garlic and tomatoes with fish stock, olive oil and squid ink (NOTE: Literally ‘black rice’.)
arrosticini all’abruzzese Italy Skewers of lamb, marinated in olive oil with seasoning, marjoram and garlic and grilled over charcoal
arrostino annegato alla milanese Italy Boned loin of veal, rolled around calves’ liver, tied or skewered, cut into thick slices, slices sprinkled with chopped sage, rosemary and salt, floured, fried both sides in oil, stewed in the oven in white wine, lemon juice and brown stock, glazed to finish and served with risotto and the reduced, thickened and strained cooking liquor
arrostire Italy To roast
arrostiti Italy Roasted
arrosto Italy 1. Roasted 2. Roast meat or anything baked in the oven, e.g. arrosto-di bue, roast beef; arrosto-di castrato, roast mutton; arrosto-d’agnello, roast lamb; anguilla-arrosta, grilled eels
arrosto di maiale Italy Scored leg of pork, salted, oiled, sealed in the oven at 220°C for 25 minutes, then basted with a mixture of white wine, finely chopped carrots, garlic and pepper. Cooking continues in this basting liquor at 190°C until done. Served with red cabbage and mashed potatoes.
arrosto di maiale ubriaco Italy A tied, boned pork loin larded with carrots, floured, browned in butter, braised slowly in grappa (or brandy), red wine, nutmeg, bay leaves and seasoning until tender and served sliced with the cooking liquor (NOTE: Literally ‘tipsy pork’.)
arrotolato Italy Rolled up
arrowhead A water plant, Sagittaria sagittifolia, with arrow-shaped leaves. Both the leaves and roots are used in Chinese cooking.
arrowroot England, France A starch powder obtained from the root of a West Indian plant, Maranta arundinacea, used for thickening where a clear, glossy glaze is required. Also called araruta (NOTE: It loses its thickening power if overcooked.)
arroz Philippines, Portugal, Spain Rice arroz abanda Spain Fish stew served on rice
arroz a la alicantina Spain A fish stew made with additions of pepper, garlic, artichoke hearts and saffron, served on rice
arroz blanco 1. Spain White rice 2. Mexico Long-grain rice fried in garlic-flavoured oil until white, cooked slowly with 2.5 times its weight of water or chicken stock and finely chopped onion, carrot, chilli and parsley or coriander
arroz con camaron seco Mexico Rice with dried fish. Same as arroz con pollo but with dried shrimps reconstituted in boiling water and tinned tuna fish substituted for the poached chicken.
arroz con frijoles Mexico Rice with beans, the staple dish of Mexicans. Long-grain rice fried in garlic-flavoured oil until golden, the oil discarded and the rice simmered with a green chilli, chicken stock, chopped onion and parsley, tomato purée and cooked beans plus the bean cooking liquor until all the liquid is absorbed.
arroz con leche Spain Rice pudding
arroz con pimenton Mexico Rice with sweet red pepper. As arroz con frijoles but with liquidized sweet red peppers and julienned peppers substituted for the beans and their cooking liquor.
arroz con pollo Mexico A Mexican variant of paella made with rice fried until pale yellow in garlic-flavoured oil and simmered in chicken stock until all the liquid is absorbed, together with: a whole onion and chilli which are later discarded; sealed and poached chicken meat; tomato purée; a macédoine of carrots and potatoes, peas, shredded cabbage, runner beans and red sweet pepper. The whole is garnished with chopped parsley.
arroz con rajas Mexico An oven-baked dish of layers of arroz blanco, sliced sweet peppers, sour and single cream, sliced Cheddar-type cheese and seasoning, topped with cheese
arroz con verduras Mexico Arroz blanco with sweet corn, peas and macédoine of carrots added prior to cooking in water or stock
arroz de grano largo Spain Long-grain rice
arroz doce Portugal Rice pudding
arroz parillada Spain Chicken, sausage, pork, onions, tomatoes, string beans and artichoke hearts fried together and served in a mould with rice
arroz refogado Portugal Savoury rice with an onion and tomato sauce
arroz valenciana Spain Rice pilaff made with chopped chicken meat, ham, red and green sweet peppers and boletus edible fungi, served with a tomato-flavoured demi-glace sauce
arrurruz Spain Arrowroot
arsekka Italy Mussel (colloquial)
arselle Italy Scallop
arsuma Italy An uncooked custard similar to zabaglione made with whole eggs whipped with sugar and dry white wine
Artemisia dracunculus Botanical name Tarragon
Artemisia lactiflora Botanical name White mugwort
Artemisia vulgaris Botanical name Mugwort
ärter Sweden Peas. Also called ärtor
ärter med fläsk Sweden The Swedish national soup of split yellow peas and pork. See also gula ärter med fläsk. Also called ärter och fläsk
ärter och fläsk Sweden Ärter med fläsk artichaut France Artichoke artichauts, purée d’ France Artichoke soup artichauts à la barigoule France Trimmed
and blanched globe artichokes from which the choke has been removed, filled with duxelles enriched with chopped ham and herbs, wrapped in salt pork fat, braised in white wine or brown stock then the fat discarded, and served with a reduced brown sauce made with the cooking liquor
artichauts à la grecque France Globe artichoke hearts cooked à la grecque
artichauts à la provençale France Small trimmed artichokes placed in hot oil, seasoned, covered and cooked for 10 minutes, fresh peas and shredded lettuce added, and the whole tightly sealed and cooked slowly in the juices from the vegetables
artichauts Cavour France Small tender artichokes, trimmed to egg shape, cooked in white bouillon, drained, dipped in melted butter and coated with a mixture of grated Parmesan and Gruyère cheeses, coloured in the oven and served with chopped hardboiled egg fried in butter and mixed with anchovy essence and chopped parsley
artichauts Clamart France Trimmed and divided artichokes with choke removed, cooked slowly in the oven in water with diced carrots, fresh peas, bouquet garni and salt; when cooked, bouquet garni removed, cooking liquor thickened with beurre manié and the whole served in same dish. A simpler alternative has cooked artichoke bottoms filled with a sieved purée of the bases of the sepals and piled with cooked young new peas (petits pois).
artichauts de Jerusalem France See Jerusalem artichoke
artichauts Grand Duc France Trimmed medium-sized artichokes cooked in salt water, drained, and arranged in a circle on a dish coated with cream sauce; napped with same, sprinkled with grated Parmesan cheese and melted butter and glazed. Served with buttered asparagus tips in the centre, and a slice of warm truffle and melted meat glaze on each artichoke.
artichauts grosse horloge France Cooked artichoke bottoms covered with mussels and cockles and topped with a béarnaise sauce flavoured with reduced shellfish cooking liquor
artichauts Stanley France Small trimmed artichokes or artichoke bottoms cooked over a layer of sliced, blanched onions and raw ham with white wine and thin béchamel sauce; cooking liquor reduced, sieved and finished with butter, then poured over the cooked artichokes; the whole sprinkled with a brunoise of ham
artichoke A plant of the thistle family, Cynara scolymus, whose unopened flower buds are used in cooking, particularly the base of the bracts and the base of the immature flower. The choke consisting of the immature petals and stamens, etc. is removed. See also Jerusalem artichoke, Chinese artichoke, Japanese artichoke. Also called globe artichoke, French artichoke
artichoke, Jerusalem See Jerusalem artichoke
artichoke bottom The flower base of the globe artichoke after the choke and bracts have been removed. Often used to hold garnishes.
artichoke heart A small immature globe artichoke with the tips of the bracts cut off. The choke has not formed at this stage.
artichokes Greek style See artichauts à la grecque
artichoke soup Basic soup made with artichokes. Also called artichauts, purée d’
artificial sweeteners Chemical and natural products other than those containing sugars used to sweeten food and drink
Artischocke Germany Artichoke artisjok Netherlands Artichoke Artocarpus communis Botanical name
Artocarpus heterophyllus Botanical name
ärtor Sweden Peas. Also called ärter
ärtsoppa Sweden Pea soup. See also gula
arum root Snake palm plant
Arundel mullets England A 17th-century Sussex dish made from small, cleaned and washed mullets, simmered in a court bouillon for 10–15 minutes, served with a reduced sauce made from the cooking liquor, sweated onions, lemon juice, white wine, herbs, chopped anchovies, seasoning and nutmeg
arval cake A cake given to mourners at funerals in the north of England (NOTE: The name is derived from the Old English word arfwol ‘inheritance ale’, used to designate the feast given by the heir of a deceased king.)
arvi Indonesia Yam
arwa chawal South Asia Long-grain rice
asadero Mexico A cooking cheese made from cows’ milk (NOTE: Literally ‘good for roasting’.)
asado 1. Mexico, Spain Grilled or roasted, often with garlic, ham, red pepper and saffron 2. Argentina An outdoor barbecue 3. Philippines A method of cooking meat by simmering in soya sauce with bay, onion, tomato and peppercorns
asados South America Spit-roasted meat from Uruguay
asadura Spain Offal
asafoetida A rather unpleasant hard resin obtained from the root or stem latex of some species of Ferula, F. asafoetida, F. narthex, which grow in Afghanistan and Iran. The powdered form is used sparingly in Indian cookery, and the taste improves when it is briefly fried in hot oil. Also known as devil’s dung for obvious reasons. The related garden plant is highly poisonous. Also called hing
asam Indonesia Tamarind
asam gelugor Malaysia Dried slices of
asam java Malaysia Tamarind
asam jawa Indonesia, Malaysia Dried slices of
asam koh China Tamarind paste
asam pedas Indonesia Fish or meat cooked in
a hot (chilli hot) and sour sauce or cooking liquor
asar 1. Mexico, Spain To roast 2. Spain To grill
asar a la parrilla Spain To grill
asarijiru Japan Cleaned and debearded mussels, simmered in dashi until open; unopened mussels discarded; mirin added and all simmered for a further 5 minutes; mussels removed and kept warm whilst the soup is seasoned and flavoured with soya sauce and shichimi togarashi; mussels served in their shells with the soup
asatsuki Japan Spring onion
asa wat East Africa Freshwater fish served in a hot berbere sauce from Ethiopia
asciutto Italy Dry or drained. Used only of items such as pasta, gnocchi, rice, etc. which could otherwise be served in stock.
ascorbates Salts and esters of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) used as antioxidants. Sodium, E301, calcium, E302 and 6 ortho-palmitoyl, E304 are used in the food industry.
ascorbic acid Vitamin C used to prevent oxidation and thus browning reactions and colour changes in foods. Also used as a flour improver. See also E300 (NOTE: Strictly, this should be known as L-ascorbic acid, the biologically active laevo-form.)
ascorbyl palmitate A chemical compound derived from ascorbic and palmitic acids used as an agent to prevent staling
ascorbyl stearate A chemical compound derived from ascorbic and stearic acids used as an antioxidant
a-sein thanat sohn Burma A hors d’oeuvre consisting of blanched vegetables and spring onion pieces with a sauce of tomato concassée mixed with finely chopped green chillies, salt and sugar
asepsis The prevention of contamination of a sterile or appertized food with organisms that can cause spoilage
aseptic packaging Packaging of food to ensure asepsis either by filling in unsterilized containers at 124°C, closing and leaving at temperature until all contaminants are inactivated, or by filling the food in sterilized containers in an apparatus which is itself sterilized where they can be sealed. The second method is generally used only where large numbers of containers are to be packed.
Ashburton open pasty England A Derbyshire pasty made from a large rectangle of puff pastry 1 cm thick, covered with stewed fruit, soaked dried fruit, mincemeat or jam to 3 cm. from edges, edges turned to centre and baked at 220°C for 20 minutes.
Ashdown partridge pudding England A Sussex dish consisting of a savoury suet pastry pudding filled with joints of old partridge, sliced rump steak, mushrooms, herbs, seasoning, moistened with red wine and stock. Steamed for 3 hours.
ashe anar Central Asia A thick Iranian soup made with lamb shanks, yellow split peas, beetroot, onion and spinach, flavoured with coriander leaves, Persian leek, spring onions, lemon juice and about one fifth its volume of pomegranate juice. The bones are
removed and the meat chopped before it is finished with nano dok.
ashe reste Iran Meatballs possibly flavoured with cinnamon, boiled in water or stock with kidney beans, lentils, fine noodles, seasoning, chopped parsley, spinach and Persian leek, finished with dried mint and fried garlic
ashet Scotland A dish in which meat is roasted or cooked
ash gourd Wax gourd
Ashley bread United States A type of bread from the south made from a rice flour bread mix and cooked in a casserole
Asiago d’allevo Italy A hard, granular, semi-fat, sharp, grating cheese from the northwest. It is made from a mixture of skimmed and full cream milk, curdled with lactobacillus and scalded, and cast into large rounds (8 to 12 kg). It can be aged up to 2 years and becomes sharper with aging. The minimum fat content is 24% of dry matter.
Asiago grasso di monte Italy A semi-soft cooked curd, mellow summer cheese made in the northwest from raw whole cows’ milk with numerous holes and a delicate flavour
Asiago pressato Italy A white, scalded-curd, mild-tasting cheese from the northwest, cast in large rounds (11 to 15 kg) with a white to pale straw paste containing a few irregular holes and a thin elastic rind. It is matured for 20 to 40 days. It contains 37% water, 23% fat and 33% protein.
Asian leek A variety of small thin leek, Allium ramosum, grown in China and Japan. The central white part is used in cooked dishes and the green leaves are used as a garnish.
Asian mussel A greenish-black shelled mussel, Perna virides, commonly found and cooked in Southeast Asia. The flesh is sometimes dried or deep-fried as a snack food.
Asian pear The crisp, white, pear-flavoured fruit of a Japanese tree, Pyrus pyrofolia or P. ussuriensis, now also cultivated in New Zealand. The shape varies from apple to pear. The juicy semi-sweet flesh has a fragrant flavour and is enclosed in a golden skin rather like a russet apple. It is eaten raw or as a garnish e.g. with game. Also called Japanese pear, Beijing pear, Peking pear, snow pear, nashi
Asiatic yam A very heavy yam, Dioscorea alata, (up to 10 kg) grown in Southeast Asia. The plant is distinguished by the winged petioles of the leaves. Also called winged yam, greater yam
asida North Africa Cooked semolina served in Morocco with honey
asier Denmark Sweet pickled cucumber used as a garnish
Asimina triloba Botanical name Papaw
asino Italy Donkey
asparagi alla Fiorentina Italy Boiled asparagus browned in butter and garnished with a fried egg
asparagi al Parmigiano Italy Tender, cooked asparagus with grated Parmesan cheese and melted butter
asparagi e funghi al burro Italy Diagonally cut 25 mm pieces of asparagus and similar sized pieces of mushrooms, sautéed (asparagus first) in butter with seasoning until dry and al dente, served immediately
asparagi pasticciati con uova Italy Peeled asparagus stalks cut into 5 cm lengths, boiled until tender, drained and mixed with sliced onion cooked to transparency in butter; beaten eggs with seasoning and grated Parmesan cheese added while the mixture is hot and stirred until scrambled; cream added and the whole served immediately with the cooked asparagus tips as a garnish
asparago Italy Asparagus
asparagus A perennial plant of the lily family, Asparagus officinalis. The young shoots are removed in spring. White asparagus is cut below ground when the tips protrude about 5 cm above ground. Green asparagus is cut at ground level when the shoots are about 15cm long. Asparagus should be used as fresh as possible, scraped, carefully washed and cooked in plenty of boiling salted water. See also sprue
asparagus bean A long (up to 40 cm) green bean, Dolichos sesquipedalis, with a frill down four sides, which can be cooked whole when young in the same way as French beans. The dried ripe beans of some varieties are sold as black-eyed beans. Also called yard long bean, long bean, yard bean
asparagus pea A leguminous plant from southern Europe, Lotus tetragonolobus or Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, with a flower rather like a small sweet pea with smooth brown seeds and grown extensively in Southeast Asia. The pods can be eaten like a mangetout when not longer than 6 cm and preferably 3 cm. Also called Goa bean, winged pea (NOTE: Not to be confused with the asparagus bean.)
asparagus royale Half-cooked asparagus tips, cold béchamel sauce, cream, green spinach for colouring and egg yolk, mixed, sieved and poached as a royale
asparagus sauce Cooked asparagus, liquidized with white stock and white wine, strained, seasoned and cream added
asparagus soup Basic soup without leek and using chicken stock and fresh asparagus trimmings or a tin of asparagus, finished with cream or milk. Also called crème d’asperges
asparges Denmark, Norway Asparagus
aspargesbønner Norway French beans, the pods
aspartame A dipeptide made from the two amino acids, aspartic acid and the methyl ester of phenylalanine, used as an artificial sweetener with roughly 180 times the sweetening power of sucrose. It is a risk to persons suffering from phenylketonuria (1 in 15,000 Europeans), and a warning to this effect should be on all containers. Used in soft drinks, yoghurts, drink mixes and
aspartic acid A non-essential amino acid
asperge France, Netherlands Asparagus
asperges à la flamande France Cooked asparagus served with a sauce made from hard-boiled yolk of egg combined with melted butter. The sauce may be made at the table by each guest from individually served portions of hot hard-boiled egg and melted butter.
asperges à la milanaise France Cooked asparagus laid in rows on a buttered dish which has been sprinkled with grated Parmesan cheese; points sprinkled with same; the whole coated with brown butter and glazed lightly. Also called asperges à l’italienne
asperges à la polonaise France Cooked asparagus arranged in rows, the tips sprinkled with a mixture of chopped hardboiled yolk of egg and parsley, the whole coated with brown butter and fine white breadcrumbs which have been fried to a golden brown in butter
asperges à l’italienne France Asperges à la milanaise
asperges au gratin France Cooked asparagus arranged in rows, tips and one third of remaining stalk coated in Mornay sauce, uncoated stalk protected with buttered paper, sauce sprinkled with grated Parmesan cheese and the whole glazed. Also called asperges Mornay
asperges Mornay France Asperges au gratin
aspergesoep Netherlands Asparagus soup
Aspergillus flavus Botanical name The mould which produces aflatoxin. It is a strict aerobe.
Aspergillus niger Botanical name One of the principal moulds used in the production of
food-grade citric acid, and for the production of enzymes such as glucose oxidase and pectinase
Aspergillus oryzae Botanical name A fungus or mould used to ferment rice in the first stage of soya sauce and miso production
Aspergillus parasiticus A mould which grows on cereals, potatoes and onions and produces aflatoxin
Aspergillus sojae One of the moulds used to
ferment soybeans and rice to make miso
asperula Italy Sweet woodruff
aspérula olorosa Spain Sweet woodruff
aspic England, France, Italy, Spain A savoury jelly made with the appropriate clarified stock (meat, chicken or fish) flavoured with vegetables, herbs, sherry, etc. with added gelatine if required, mainly used for decorative larder work (NOTE: Nowadays instant aspic granules at 70 g per litre of water are usually used.)
aspic de bécasses France The leg flesh and intestines of roast woodcock pounded together with brandy and aspic jelly and sieved, piled onto slices of breast, cooled, covered with a brown chaud-froid sauce, placed breast uppermost in an aspic-lined mould, filled with aspic jelly and demoulded when set
aspic de volaille à l’italienne France An aspic-lined mould is decorated with slices of truffle and filled with alternate layers of julienne of cooked chicken breast, slices of cooked red ox tongue and truffle, each layer separated by cool aspic jelly. The whole is filled with aspic jelly and served with salade italienne and sauce remoulade.
aspic de volaille gauloise France An aspic-lined mould is decorated with slices of truffle, then filled with alternate layers of slices of chicken, cockscombs coated with brown chaud-froid sauce, chicken kidneys coated with white chaud-froid sauce and slices of ox tongue. All are cooked, each layer being separated with aspic jelly. The whole is demoulded when set.
aspic d’ortolans France Cold roast whole buntings (not boned out) placed breast side down in a border mould coated with aspic, filled with aspic jelly and demoulded when set (NOTE: Buntings are no longer served as food in the EU.)
aspic mould A decoratively-shaped mould, usually metal, used for aspic-bound and coated foods
aspic of fillets of sole A fish-aspic-lined mould, decorated and filled with either cooled and aspic-coated poached and trimmed fillets of sole or paupiettes of sole stuffed with a fish forcemeat and truffle and cut in slices; the whole filled with aspic jelly and demoulded when set
aspic of foie gras An aspic-lined mould decorated with truffle and cooked egg white, filled with slices or scoops of cooked foie gras, each coated with cool aspic; the whole filled with aspic and demoulded when set
Aspik Germany Aspic
assad South Asia Cubed pork shoulder, coated with a paste of ginger, garlic, turmeric and seasoning, fried in ghee until coloured, then simmered with water, cinnamon stick, cloves, dried chillies and mace until tender
assadeiro Portugal A large, shallow roasting pan
assado Portugal Roasted
assaisoner France To season
assam jawa Southeast Asia Tamarind
assam tea A high-quality tea from Assam in
assiette France Plate
assiette anglaise France A plate of assorted sliced cold meats and sausages
assiette de charcuterie France A plate of assorted sliced sausages
assonza Italy Lard flavoured with hot pepper and fennel seeds, spread on toast
assorted hors d’oeuvres A variety of hors d’oeuvres served separately in raviers or similar dishes, e.g. potato salad, niçoise salad, egg mayonnaise, rice salad, anchovies, cauliflower à la grecque, tomato salad, Russian salad. The assortment should
have contrast of colour, taste and texture.
assorti France Assorted
assortito Italy Assorted
ast, a l’ Catalonia Spit-roasted
astaco Italy The crayfish, Astacus fluviatilis,
also the popular name for lobster
astaco americano Italy True lobster
astakos me latholemono Greece Lobster flesh, dressed with a mixture of olive oil, lemon juice, chopped marjoram and seasoning, piled in the pregrilled half lobster shells, brushed with more dressing, grilled for 8 minutes and served immediately
astaxanthin The pink colouring in a small shrimp-like creature which gives the pink colour to the flesh of salmon. Now fed to farmed salmon which are generally pinker than wild.
astice Italy Plural of astaco
astringent A liquid such as lemon juice or a solution of tannin which tightens up the skin
or mucous membranes of the mouth
asukal Philippines Sugar
asupara Japan Asparagus
ata A wholemeal flour used for making unleavened breads. See also atta
atap chee Malaysia Palm nut
atemoya A hybrid variety of custard apple, genus Anona, derived from the cherimoya and the sweet sop
athénienne, à l’ France In the Athenian style,
i.e. garnished with onion, aubergine, tomato and sweet red pepper, all fried in oil
atherine A small silvery fish similar in appearance to the lesser argentine, usually grilled or fried
Atherton raspberry Australia One of the wild raspberries available commercially in Queensland. As it deteriorates quickly it is usually only available frozen. See also wild raspberry
athol brose Scotland A dish consisting of a gruel made by pouring boiling water over oatmeal with whisky and honey added for flavour. Sometimes most of the oatmeal is omitted.
atis Philippines Rose apple
atjar Shredded cabbage and other vegetables. See also acar
Atlantic blue crab See blue crab
Atlantic butterfish See butterfish 1
Atlantic catfish Catfish
Atlantic cod The name given in North America to cod caught in the North Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic croaker A seawater fish, Micropogonia undulatus, found off the North American coast, up to 1 kg in weight and with lean delicately flavoured flesh
Atlantic deep sea scallop A large North Atlantic scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, fished off the American coast
Atlantic mackerel Mackerel
Atlantic salmon The wild salmon of the Atlantic, Salmo salar, with medium oily pink flesh and a mild flavour, which can weigh up to 18 kg. It can be distinguished from farmed salmon by signs of wear especially on the tail fin. Cooked in any way and often smoked.
Atlantic silverside A slender round oily seawater fish, Menidia menidia,13 to 15 cm long with a translucent green back and silver bands lengthways along the sides. It is caught on the Atlantic coast and in the estuaries of North America, and usually fried or grilled.
Atlantic squid Loligo forbesi, a slightly larger variety of squid than the Mediterranean, but
otherwise similar Atlantic sturgeon Common sturgeon Atlantic thread herring See thread herring
atmospheric steamer A device used to cook foods in live steam at atmospheric pressure, Condensation of steam on the surface of the food or its container gives the highest rate of heat transfer available with the exception of high-temperature radiant heat. The food temperature is limited to 100°C.
atole Mexico A thin porridge or thick gruel of maize flour (masa harina) or corn flour, boiled with water, milk, cinnamon, sugar and puréed fresh fruit. Served hot for breakfast.
atole de arroz Mexico As atole, but made with rice or rice flour and flavoured with cinnamon
Atriplex hortensis Botanical name Orach
atsu-age Japan Lightly fried bean curd
atta South Asia A wholemeal flour used for making unleavened breads such as chapatis, puri and paratha. Also called ata
attar Middle East A spice shop in Arab countries
attelette France The small silver skewer used to present attereaux after cooking or for certain garnishes
atterato Italy A method of serving vermicelli with butter, pine nuts and chocolate
attereaux France Hors d’oeuvres consisting of thin slices of various cooked (e.g. meats) or raw (e.g. vegetables) ingredients on a skewer, coated in a reduced sauce, panéed and deep-fried just before serving, garnished with fried parsley and possibly presented on a mound of rice (socle) or on fried bread
attereaux à la florentine France Attereaux au Parmesan
attereaux à la genevoise France Attereaux of chicken livers, lambs sweetbreads, brains, mushrooms, truffles, artichoke hearts coated with a well-reduced duxelles sauce, when cool covered with a forcemeat mixed with beaten egg, panéed, deep-fried and served immediately
attereaux à la princesse France Attereaux au Parmesan
attereaux à la royale France Attereaux au Parmesan
attereaux au Parmesan France Semolina cooked in just sufficient white bouillon, mixed with grated Parmesan cheese and butter, spread out 0.5 cm thick to cool into a stiff paste, cut into 2.5 cm rounds and alternated with similar slices of Gruyère cheese on a skewer, panéed, deep-fried and served immediately. Also called attereaux à la florentine, attereaux à la princesse, attereaux à la royale
attereaux d’huitres à la Villeroy France Attereaux of oysters alternating with slices of cooked mushrooms on a skewer coated with
sauce Villeroy reduced with juices from the oysters, panéed, deep-fried and served immediately
attereaux Villeroy France Attereaux coated with sauce Villeroy
ättika Sweden Vinegar
attorta Italy An S-shaped cake from Umbria made from flour, ground almonds, sugar and lemon zest
atum Portugal Tuna fish
atún Spain Tuna fish
au France In the style of; used before masculine French nouns (NOTE: Also means ‘with’ or ‘in’.)
aubergine England, France, Italy The purple fruit of an East Indian annual plant, Solanum melongena, of the same family as the tomato and deadly nightshade. Generally violet to deep purple in Europe and North America and up to 30 cm long, but can be white or deep yellow streaked with purple and the size of a hen’s egg. The bitter taste of some varieties is removed by sprinkling with salt and allowing to drain. Also called eggplant, garden egg, Guinea squash
aubergines à la bordelaise France Salted and drained slices of aubergine, seasoned, floured and sautéed in olive oil with finely chopped shallots, white breadcrumbs used to absorb the excess oil, the whole served with lemon juice and chopped parsley or grilled with olive oil and coated with bordelaise sauce
aubergines à la crème France Aubergines cut in 0.5 cm slices, salted and drained for 1 hour, dried, cooked in butter and mixed with cream sauce
aubergines à la napolitaine France Peeled aubergines, cut lengthwise in slices, seasoned, floured, deep-fried, reformed with tomato purée flavoured with Parmesan cheese between the slices, arranged in a dish coated with tomato sauce, sprinkled with grated Parmesan cheese, oiled and buttered and baked
aubergines à la parisienne France As for aubergines à l’égyptienne but filled with a mixture of chopped aubergine flesh, white meat, marrow or bacon fat, egg yolks, stale breadcrumbs, nutmeg and seasoning, then baked in the oven
aubergines à la provençale France As for aubergines à l’égyptienne, but filled with a mixture of aubergine flesh, onions and tomato flesh, all coarsely chopped and cooked in oil, fresh breadcrumbs, chopped parsley, seasoning; flavoured with garlic, gratinéed and served with tomato sauce
aubergines à la serbe France As for aubergines à l’égyptienne but filled with a mixture of chopped cooked mutton, tomato flesh and onions chopped and cooked in butter, plain boiled rice, crumbed and gratinéed and served with tomato sauce and chopped parsley. Also called aubergines à la turque
aubergines à la turque France Aubergines à la serbe
aubergines à l’égyptienne France Aubergines cut in half lengthwise, flesh cut away from edges and scored, aubergines deep-fried, then the flesh removed from skins. Skins arranged in a buttered dish, filled with a mixture of chopped flesh and chopped onions cooked in oil, oiled, baked for 15 minutes and served topped with sautéed sliced tomato and chopped parsley.
aubergines à l’orientale France Peeled aubergines cut lengthwise into slices, seasoned, floured, deep-fried, made into sandwiches with a filling of chopped fried aubergine and tomato flesh, white breadcrumbs, seasoning and garlic flavouring. Filled aubergines placed in an oiled dish, sprinkled with oil and baked for 30 minutes. Served hot or cold.
aubergines au gratin France As for aubergines à l’égyptienne but filled with a mixture of chopped aubergine flesh and duxelles, arranged in a dish, sprinkled with white breadcrumbs and oil, baked and served with tomato sauce
aubergines frites France Aubergines cut in thin round slices, seasoned, battered or panéed, deep-fried and served immediately
Auflauf Germany 1. Omelette 2. Baked soufflé
Aufschnitt Germany Cold meat
Aufschnittwurst Switzerland A scalded sausage (Brühwurst) made with pork and beef
Augsburgerwurst Germany A lightly smoked cooking sausage made with chopped lean pork and back fat, flavoured with cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, seasoning and a little saltpetre, filled into beef runners and air-dried for 4 days before being smoked
augurk Netherlands Gherkin augurken Netherlands Pickles Auld Reekie plum cake Scotland A rich fruit
cake flavoured with whisky (added at the flour folding stage) and chopped preserved ginger
aumônières surprise France A dessert made from thin sweet pancakes or crêpes with a centre filling of fruit salad, ice cream, etc., pulled up into a bag or purse shape and tied with a blanched strip of angelica or liquorice, and served on a coulis of fruits
Aunus France A small triangular-shaped cheese from Charente made with ewes’ milk
Aura Finland A semi-soft, blue-veined cheese made from whole cows’ milk, cast in 2.5 kg rounds. Contains 45% water, 28% fat and 24% protein.
Auricularia auricula Botanical name Jew’s ear
Auricularia polytricha Botanical name
aurin France Grey mullet
aurore, sauce England, France Suprême sauce, lightly flavoured with either tomato purée or sieved tomato concassée and finished with butter. Used for boiled chicken, poached eggs, etc.
aurore maigre, sauce France As sauce aurore but using fish stock to make the velouté base. Used for fish.
Ausbackteig Germany Dough or flour-based paste or pâte
aush Central Asia A dish from Afghanistan of noodles made with a flour and water dough, boiled and mixed with cooked spinach, yellow split peas and chakah. Served with keema.
aushak Central Asia A type of ravioli from Afghanistan, filled with a mixture of chopped leeks, chilli peppers, salt and oil, and poached in the usual way. Served in chakah, sprinkled with rubbed dried mint and topped with keema.
Auster Germany Oyster, originally the
European flat oyster
Austerpilz Germany Oyster mushroom
Australian barracuda Snoek
Australian black bream Australia A typical bream-shaped fish, Acanthopagrus butcheri, quite common in Victorian waters. Generally 0.5 to 1.5 kg in weight, they have white, delicately flavoured flesh. The upper body is green to blackish, and the belly and chin are white. Also called southern bream
Australian fondant icing See plastic icing
Australian oyster An oyster, Crassostrea commercialis, grown off the coasts of Australia and New Zealand
australique Australia Ortanique
Austrian pancakes A type of sweet soufflé omelette. See also Salzburger Nockerln
Austro/Malaysian laksa Australia A Malaysian laksa flavoured with lemon aspen and lemon myrtle
autoclave A high-pressure-steamed and steam-heated chamber which cooks food very rapidly and which is also used to sterilize canned and bottled food
autocondimentor A person who seasons any meal placed in front of them, whatever it is and regardless of how much seasoning it has already had and of how it tastes
autolysed yeast Yeast cells which have been subjected to limited and controlled autolysis to liberate cell contents and change their flavour. The result which looks like thick molasses in appearance is used in vegetarian cooking and as a sandwich spread.
autolysis The process by which cells are broken down by their own enzymes or acid products when dead. In the early stages cell contents are released adding to flavour but later the material becomes putrid. The process occurs when meat is hung or when fish goes bad.
automatic boiler A boiler with an automatic water feed designed to produce fresh boiling water on demand
autrichienne, à l’ In the Austrian style, i.e. including soured cream, paprika, onions and fennel
autumn partridge pot England A Norfolk dish of jointed older partridges passed through seasoned oatmeal and slowly casseroled between diced bacon and mushrooms, onions and tomatoes with stock and red wine flavoured with cloves, bay, thyme and seasoning
autumn pudding England As summer pudding, but using stewed autumn fruits such as apples, plums and blackberries, etc.
autumn vegetable soup England A variety of diced vegetables, sweated in butter and cooked in vegetable stock with a bouquet garni until just tender
available nutrients Nutrients in food which can be digested and absorbed in the body. Some become unavailable when bound to another compound, e.g. avidin in raw egg whites binds biotin to make it unavailable. Cooking frees the biotin.
avaisances Belgium Meat-filled pastries
avanzi Italy Leftovers
avdrakla Greece Purslane
aveia Portugal Oatmeal
aveline France Filbert
avella Italy Hazelnut
avellanas Spain Hazelnuts
ave maria Italy Short tubes of pasta used in soups. See also cannolicchi
avena Italy, Spain Oats
avena a medio moler Spain 1. Oat grits 2.
avern Scotland Wild strawberry
aves Portugal, Spain Poultry
aves de corral Mexico Poultry
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avgolemono Greece A sauce made by combining egg yolks or whole eggs with lemon juice and stock then cooking in a double boiler until thick. Alternatively a reduced velouté sauce thickened with a mixture of egg yolks and lemon juice. Also called saltsa avgolemono
avgolemono soupa Greece A soup made with chicken stock and rice with eggs, lemon juice and seasoning
avgotarabo The salted and dried roe of grey mullet used as an appetizer and for making taramasalata. Also called botargo (NOTE: Recorded as being eaten by Samuel Pepys on the 5th June 1661.)
avidin A component of egg white which impairs the uptake and utilization of the vitamin biotin in the body. One of a number of protective chemicals in the white whose function is to prevent bacterial attack of the yolk. It is inactivated by heat.
avocado The pear-shaped fruit of a species of subtropical laurel, Persea americana, with a rough, thick, green to dark brown skin, a creamy yellow flesh and a large single stone, usually eaten as a starter or salad, but also used as an ingredient of guacamole. The flesh mixed with grated nutmeg is said to be a male aphrodisiac. Also called avocado pear, alligator pear
avocado mousse Purée of avocado flesh, mixed with lemon juice, icing sugar, and hot gelatine solution, cooled, whipped cream folded in, moulded, set and demoulded
avocado oil Cooking oil extracted from the pulp of damaged avocados. Contains about 20% saturated, 65% monounsaturated and
15% polyunsaturated fats.
avocado pear See avocado
avocado soup See sopa de aguacate
avocat France Avocado
avocat épicure France The diced flesh of halved avocados, mixed with diced gherkins, walnuts, mayonnaise and paprika, replaced in the empty half skins, garnished with pickled walnut and served on crisp lettuce
avocat Singapour France The diced flesh of halved avocados, sprinkled with vinegar, mixed with crab meat, mayonnaise, cream and lemon juice, replaced in the empty half skins and served on crushed ice with crisp lettuce and lemon slices
avoine France Oats
avron Scotland Cloudberry
awabi Japan Abalone
awasi East Africa A type of Ethiopian mustard sauce
awayukikan Japan A dessert made from agar-agar and caster sugar dissolved in boiling water (1:50:60) cooled to less than 60°C, beaten into stiffly beaten egg whites (one fifth of the weight of the sugar) and poured into a mould or dish and decorated
awenda bread United States A bread of Amerindian origin made from hominy grits
ayam Indonesia, Malaysia Chicken
ayam bakar Malaysia Chicken pieces coated with a paste of pounded garlic, lemon grass, laos, turmeric and salt, left for 50 minutes, boiled in water with bay leaves, soya sauce and butter for 30 minutes until the cooking liquor is reduced to coating consistency, then grilled to finish
ayam goreng jawa Indonesia A dish of chicken cut in pieces, simmered until tender in water, with chopped shallots, garlic, coriander powder, laos powder, lemon grass, grated nutmeg, cinnamon, bay leaves, brown sugar and salt until most of the liquid is absorbed, drained, cooled and deep-fried until golden brown
ayam kecap Indonesia A dish of poached chicken pieces, tossed with a fried pounded spice mixture of onion, garlic and deseeded red chillies, simmered with chicken stock, nutmeg, cloves, strained tamarind purée and soya sauce until tender
ayam opor Indonesia A dish of chicken pieces fried in a pounded spice mixture (garlic, onion, macadamia nuts and coriander seeds), stewed with coconut milk, laos, lemon grass, lime leaves, bay leaves, salt and sugar until tender and garnished with crisp fried onions
ayam panggang kecap Southeast Asia Roasted chicken cut into four pieces, flattened, marinated with dark soya sauce, chopped shallots, garlic, chilli powder, lemon or lime juice and sesame seed oil for 1 hour then reheated under the grill
Aylesbury duck England One of the 2 standard duck breeds, the other being pekin. It matures in about 7 weeks and contains a lot of fat.
Aylesbury game pie England A Buckinghamshire terrine made in a dish lined with bacon from alternating layers of seasoned forcemeat (pork fat, leg meat, liver, etc.) and diced meat from hare, chicken and pheasant previously marinated in brandy, thyme, bay and seasoning, covered with marinade and bacon, sealed and oven-cooked in a bain-marie for 3 hours. May be served hot or cold and demoulded.
ayran Middle East A yoghurt-based drink similar to lassi, but flavoured with cardamom seeds (two pods per 100 ml of yoghurt)
Ayrshire bacon Scotland Bacon from Ayrshire which has its rind removed after curing and is tightly rolled and secured with string
Ayrshire galantine Scotland A galantine of minced bacon and beef shoulder steak mixed with breadcrumbs, nutmeg, mace and seasoning, bound with egg and stock, rolled in a cloth, simmered in water with aromatic vegetables, removed from the cloth, pressed until set, glazed with aspic jelly and served cold
Ayrshire gigot Scotland A boned, rolled and tied gammon joint
Ayrshire meat roll Scotland A mixture of minced Ayrshire bacon, minced stewing steak, finely chopped onions, eggs, white breadcrumbs, nutmeg and pepper, rolled and wrapped in a floured cloth, simmered for two hours, removed from the cloth and coated with toasted breadcrumbs
Ayrshire roll Back bacon, skinned, rolled and tied. Available in Scotland.
Ayrshire shortbread Scotland A Scottish shortbread using less butter than the standard recipe but enriched with egg and cream
ayu Japan Freshwater trout
ayurveda South Asia A science of living which offers guidance on food, menus, cooking techniques and conditions in which food should be eaten. In brief it recommends fresh vegetarian food but definitely not red meat and that a balanced meal should contain a little of each taste and quality. Six tastes are distinguished, sweet, salt, sour, bitter, pungent and astringent and six
qualities, light, heavy, oily, dry, hot and cold. Eating should be a leisurely activity and a period of quiet after a meal should also be observed. Steaming is considered the best method of cooking, and the attitude of the cook, who should be serene and tranquil, is important.
azafrán Spain Saffron
azarole The Naples medlar, Crataegus azarolus, a native of the Mediterranean with a crisp fruit the size of a crab apple containing 3 or 4 hard seeds. It is eaten fresh or used for jam making. Also called Naples medlar, Mediterranean medlar
azêda Portugal Sorrel
azêdo Portugal Sour
azeitão Portugal A soft, mild, ewes’ milk cheese made in cylinders (up to 250 g) with a creamy fine textured tangy flavoured paste and a yellow rind. Eaten with a spoon.
azeite Portugal Olive oil azeitonas Portugal Olives azijn Netherlands Vinegar azodicarbonamide See E927 azorubine Carmoisine azúcar Spain Sugar azúcar de pilón Spain Sugar lump azúcar en cortadillo Spain Cube sugar azúcar en cuadrillo Spain Sugar lumps azúcar en polvo Spain Granulated or caster
azuki bean See adzuki bean
azul A nondescript, dense, strong-tasting blue cheese made in Latin America from pasteurized and homogenized cows’ milk, similar to the equally nondescript Danish blue. Contains 43% water, 31% fat, 22% protein.
azyme France Unleavened
baak dau gok China The light green variety of
baak kwo China Ginkgo nut
baars Netherlands 1. Perch 2. Bass
baba 1. Poland A Polish cake resembling a long gathered skirt (NOTE: Literally ‘an old woman’.) 2. France A light-textured cake made from a sweetened yeast-raised dough, often baked in small or large ring moulds or in dariole moulds. May be soaked in syrup flavoured with rum or liqueur and/or filled with cream. Served hot or cold.
baba au kirsch France A baked baba cake soaked in kirsch-flavoured sugar syrup
baba au rhum France A baba cake baked in a small ring mould, soaked in rum-flavoured syrup and the centre filled with whipped cream
babaco A hybrid of the paw paw, Carica papaya, which when cut across resembles a five pointed star. The soft pulp has a pleasant mixed-fruit taste. Originally from Ecuador but now grown in New Zealand. Also called star fruit
babaghanouji An Armenian aubergine pâté; the same as baklazhannaia ikra except that parsley is substituted for coriander and pomegranate seeds are added at the same time as the parsley
babaofan China Glutinous rice pudding with eight ingredients. Also called eight treasure rice
babassu The Brazilian palm, Orbignija speciosa or O. martiana, whose nuts yield a valuable oil.
babbelaar Netherlands Butter cake
babelutten Belgium A caramel biscuit
babeurre France Buttermilk
babi guling Indonesia Roast pork
babi lemak Southeast Asia A pork stew from Singapore made with coconut milk, onions, blachan, herbs and spices
baboy letsonin Philippines Roast sucking pig
baby beef United States Meat from a beef animal between 14 and 52 weeks old, no longer veal, but not yet true beef
baby bel France A small, soft, whole cows’ milk cheese similar to Edam and covered in red wax
baby corn See miniature corn
baby’s head England Steak and kidney pudding (colloquial; navy)
bacalaitos Caribbean Puerto Rican fried fish
cakes made with cod
bacalao Spain Dried cod, salt cod, cod or ling
bacalao a la ajo arriero Spain Cod cooked in a garlicky sauce with parsley and pepper
bacalao a la vizcaína Spain Poached salt cod, boned, floured and browned in oil; bread cubes, raw ham, garlic, chopped onions, bay leaf and ñoras added and sweated until tender; pimenton and poaching liquor added and cooked for 10 minutes; fish reserved; cooking liquor liquidized, sieved, seasoned and sugared, and its consistency adjusted, then poured over salt cod and all heated through
bacalao al pil-pil Spain Cod cooked in olive oil, from the Basque region
bacalao seco Spain Stockfish
bacalhau Portugal Dried salt cod used as a staple protein food in Portugal
bacalhau à portuguêsa Portugal Casseroled salt cod with tomatoes, onions, potatoes and sweet peppers
bacalhau cozido Portugal Salt cod boiled with vegetables
bacalhau fresco à portuguêsa Portugal Cod steaks fried in oil with aubergines, tomatoes,
onions and garlic. Served with rice.
bacallà Catalonia Salt fish, also cod
bacca Italy Berry (NOTE: The plural is bacche.)
baccalà Italy Salt cod
baccalà alla bolognese Italy Salt cod cooked
in butter and oil with garlic and pepper
baccalà alla cappuccina Italy Salt cod cooked with oil, vinegar, parsley and garlic
baccalà alla genovese Italy Salt cod grilled and served with oil, lemon juice and boiled potatoes
baccalà alla napoletana Italy Salt cod, fried in oil then stewed in a sauce of tomatoes, garlic, oil and capers
baccalà alla veneziana Italy Salt cod browned in oil with onion and stewed in a thick anchovy sauce
bacche Italy Berries bac cua Vietnam Ginkgo nut bachelor’s button United States A round
sweet biscuit with a cherry in the centre
Bachforelle Germany Brown trout
bacile France Samphire, C. maritimum.
Bacillus cereus A bacterium which grows on rice, usually found in temperate countries in spore form. The spore will germinate after cooking and lead to growth of the vegetative form which can cause food poisoning. There are 2 strains, one has an incubation period of 1 – 5 hours, a duration of 6 – 24 hours and the symptoms are nausea and vomiting and occasionally diarrhoea; the other has an incubation period of 8 – 16 hours, a duration of 12 – 24 hours and the symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhoea and occasionally nausea.
Bacillus licheniformis Bacteria which can produce a toxin causing diarrhoea and vomiting. The incubation period is 4 – 8 hours.
Bacillus subtilis Bacteria which can produce a toxin causing vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. The incubation period is 2 – 18 hours.
back bacon That part of the side of bacon which, if uncured, would be pork loin or shoulder chop
backen Germany To bake
Bäckerei Germany 1. Pastries 2. Patisserie
back fat Hard fat from the back of the pig, usually specified for high-quality sausage making
Backhendl Austria Panéed chicken fried in lard or oil
Backhuhn Germany Panéed and fried chicken
Backobst Germany Dried fruit
Backobstkompott Germany Mixed dried fruit, soaked overnight then simmered in a sugar water syrup (4:5) with a cinnamon stick and lemon rind until the fruit is all tender, then drained and covered with the reduced cooking liquor. Served hot or cold and possibly flavoured with liqueur or spirits.
Backpflaume Germany Prune
Backpulver Germany Baking powder Backstein Germany The Bavarian version of
Backteig Germany Batter for deep-frying
Backwerk Germany 1. Cakes 2. Pastries
bacon England, France, Spain The flesh of pork, divided in two halves along the backbone, then dried and preserved by treatment with salt, saltpetre and spices. These remove water from the meat and have some antibacterial action. Commercial curing methods leave more water in the flesh by including polyphosphates and do not give a bacon which keeps as well as the traditionally cured or dry-cured variety. Bacon may be smoked after curing to enhance the flavour. It is usually sold after boning.
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baconer A pig bred for bacon to give a high yield of back bacon, generally long with little fat and small head and legs
bacon froise England A plain flour, egg and milk batter into which whisked egg white is folded, half added to a buttered fry pan and cooked until set, crisp bacon pieces added, the remaining batter added, cooked and turned to brown both sides
bacon rasher A thin slice cut at right angles to the backbone from a side of bacon. Also called rasher
bacon strip United States Bacon rasher
bacoreta Spain Little tunny
bacteria The plural form of bacterium. Important in the food industries are
Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Listeria, all of which are food poisoning organisms and Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus spp., etc. which are used in the production of various foodstuffs. See under each heading. See also food poisoning bacteria
bacterial count The number of bacteria per unit weight or volume of a foodstuff, which is indicative of food quality in some cases
bactericide A chemical which kills actively growing bacteria
bacterium A single-celled micro-organism which replicates by growth and then division. Some are beneficial, some harmful. See examples under entry bacteria.
badaam South Asia Almond
badasco France The Provençal name for the fish, rascasse, used in fish soups and
badèche France Sea bass
Badischer Hecht Germany Pike fillets with button onions, covered in sour cream half baked in the oven then finished by
gratinating with breadcrumbs and grated cheese
baecheoffe Switzerland Baked potato
baechu Korea Chinese leaves
baeckoffe France A meat and potato hotpot from the Alsace region of France made from boneless stewing meat marinaded in Alsace Riesling wine with chopped onions, garlic and herbs, layered with potatoes and onions, covered in the marinade; the pot then sealed and cooked in the oven for up to 4 hours at 175°C (NOTE: Literally ‘baking oven’.)
bagaceira Portugal The Portuguese equivalent of marc or grappa, a type of rum made with sugar cane residues
bagel A Jewish bread roll made by forming the dough into a ring, then briefly boiling after proving and prior to baking
baggiana Italy A bean, tomato and basil soup from Umbria
baghar South Asia A mixture of sliced onions and possibly other vegetables, flavoured with chopped garlic, chillies and whole spices, fried in ghee or clarified butter and used as a topping for dhal
baghlava Iran Baklava
baghrir North Africa A fine semolina and flour pancake from Morocco usually eaten at breakfast. It is cooked on one side only and has a distinctive honeycombed appearance. Often served with butter and honey or khli’.
bagna 1. France A small Niçoise salad served on a round bun with the centre scooped out, eaten as street food (colloquial; Provence) 2. Italy A regional name for sauce
bagna cauda Italy A mixture of melted butter or olive oil, chopped anchovies, garlic, and basil, served hot with raw or cooked vegetables
Bagnes et conches Switzerland A hard delicately flavoured cheese
bagnet Italy The name for sauce in Piedmont
bagnomaria Italy See bain-marie
bagolan Philippines Cuttlefish
bagoong Philippines Salted shrimps or small fish fermented in a closed jar for several weeks and used as a flavouring or condiment. The liquid which is drawn off is used as a fish sauce known as patis.
Bagozzo Italy A cooked-curd, grana-type cheese with a very hard yellow paste containing fine holes. It has a sharp flavour and a red rind, and is often sliced and grilled.
Bagration Russia A veal and chicken consommé flavoured with bay, thyme and dill and served hot over cooked asparagus tips and garnished with sour cream (NOTE: Named after General Bagration who was killed at the battle of Borodino in 1812 and has various dishes named after him.)
baguette France Long, thin, crusty French bread, about 250 g weight and formed on a cloth. Not baked in a tin. The top is slashed in a characteristic diagonal pattern before baking. (NOTE: The form originated in Paris in the middle of the 19th century, where it was introduced from Vienna by the Austrian embassy. It rapidly became popular throughout France.)
baharat Middle East A spice mix from the Persian Gulf consisting of nutmeg, black peppercorns, coriander seeds, cumin seeds, cloves, green cardamom, paprika and cayenne pepper and used with meat and vegetables
bai cai China Pak choy
baie France Berry
baie de ronce France Wild blackberry
baigan South Asia A long thin aubergine
bai guo China Gingko nut
bai horapa Thailand Basil
bai karee Thailand Curry leaf
bai krapow Thailand Purple basil
bai mak nao Cambodia Lemon grass
baingan South Asia Aubergine
bainiku Japan Puréed umeboshi plums added to dips and sauces to give a tart flavour
bain-marie England, France A dish to contain boiling or hot water in which other dishes are stood for cooking or to keep them warm at temperatures below boiling. May be specially made with appropriate containers.
bain-marie, au France Method of cooking an item in a container placed in a pan of water so as to prevent it reaching too high a temperature
bairm breac Ireland Barm brack
bai sa ra neh Thailand Mint
baiser France Two meringue shells sandwiched together with whipped cream
(NOTE: Literally ‘a kiss’.)
bai toey hom Thailand Screwpine
bajai halászlé Hungary A fish and potato
soup from Baja
bajoue France Pig’s cheek
bajra South Asia Bulrush millet
bakagai Japan A type of large clam. See also aoyagi (NOTE: The name is sometimes incorrectly used for mirugai which is a different species.)
bake 1. United States A North American term for a social gathering at which baked or barbecued food is served, e.g. ‘clam bake’ 2.
Caribbean A type of biscuit from Trinidad made from plain flour, butter and baking powder (25:6:1) by the rubbing-in method, brought together with coconut milk and either baked, griddled or fried
bake, to To cook in an oven with dry heat. Heat is transferred by radiation from the hot metal surfaces or by convection from natural or forced circulation of hot air or gas-combustion products. Sometimes steam may be added to increase the relative humidity and reduce the loss of weight by evaporation of water. Baked goods are usually brown on the outside.
bake and shark Caribbean A local snack food from Trinidad and Tobago consisting of shark meat marinated in lime juice, then coated in seasoned flour, fried and placed between two fried bakes
bake blind, to To bake an unfilled pastry case in a tin by lining the inside with foil or greaseproof paper and filling this with dried beans or grain so as to prevent the case losing its shape. After the pastry has set, the filling is removed and the pastry case is finished in the oven.
baked Alaska Very cold ice cream placed on a sponge cake, covered with meringue and baked in a hot oven so that the meringue is browned whilst the ice cream remains solid. Also called Norwegian omelette, omelette soufflée surprise, omelette norvégienne
baked apple United Kingdom A cored apple with skin on, stuffed with sultanas, brown sugar and cinnamon powder and baked in the oven as a dessert
baked bananas Peeled bananas, halved, baked with rum, brown sugar, lemon juice and butter and served with whipped cream or ice cream
baked batter pudding England A Yorkshire pudding batter baked in the oven with sweet or savoury solid additions
baked beans Cooked navy beans (from the USA) in a tomato sauce. The tinned variety are an important source of protein and fibre in Europe and North America, especially for children. The navy bean is now being replaced in some brands by European varieties of the haricot bean.
baked custard United States Crème renversée
baked egg custard An egg custard mix of eggs, sugar, milk and flavourings, baked in the oven until set and browned, sometimes in a pastry case. (4 to 5 eggs per litre).
baked pudding United Kingdom As steamed pudding but cooked uncovered at 180°C in an oven for about an hour until well risen bakelse Sweden A sweet pastry or small cake
bake pan United States A large rectangular straight-sided shallow pan without a cover, used for oven-baking
baker’s cheese United States A soft, smooth type of cottage cheese made from a pasteurized skimmed milk with a lactic starter culture. Extensively used in the bakery trade. Contains 74% water, 0.2% fat and 19% protein.
baker’s dozen Thirteen of anything, a bonus of one over the regular dozen
baker’s yeast A particular strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suitable for bread making. Sold as a beige, crumbly, solid cake, usually containing about 75 to 80% free water. Must be used fresh.
bakery An establishment where cakes and bread are baked, often with a shop attached Bakewell pudding England A thickish irregular puff pastry case lined with jam and filled with an almond-flavoured egg, butter and sugar mixture, eaten hot or cold (NOTE: So called from the town of Bakewell in
Bakewell tart England A shortcrust pastry case lined with jam and filled with an almond cake mixture, baked and finished with icing (NOTE: So called from the town of Bakewell in Derbyshire.)
baking chocolate Unsweetened or bitter chocolate used in cooking. See also bitter chocolate
baking powder A chemical raising agent made from a finely ground mixture of two parts cream of tartar to one part bicarbonate of soda which liberates carbon dioxide gas on heating. Domestic baking powders replace some of the cream of tartar with an acid phosphate which is slower to act and gives more time for preparation and cooking. baking sheet A heavy steel sheet, usually rectangular with raised edges on 3 sides, on which rolls, biscuits, etc. are cooked in the oven. The unraised edge is to facilitate sliding the baked goods onto a cooling rack.
See also baking tray
baking soda See bicarbonate of soda
baking tray A steel sheet with a raised edge all around or on three sides for use in an oven. Various shapes are available for pizzas, tarts, etc., or a rectangular tray can be used as a base for flan rings and smaller containers. See also baking sheet
baklava, baklaoua A Middle Eastern, Armenian and Greek dessert made from
layers of filo pastry interspersed with chopped nuts, ground almonds, breadcrumbs, sugar, spice, butter, etc.; after baking at 170°C for 50 minutes, soaked in sugar syrup or honey, cooled and cut into squares or diamonds. The Armenian version is usually baked in a round pan and prescored in a diamond pattern and cut into diamonds after baking.
baklazhannaia ikra Southwest Asia A Georgian pâté made from the flesh of roasted aubergines, simmered with chopped and sweated spring onions and green sweet peppers, skinned tomatoes and cayenne pepper until all cooked and thick, mixed with chopped coriander and lemon juice and cooled
bakonyi betyárleves Hungary A thick soup of chicken, beef, noodles, mushrooms and vegetables. Also called outlaw soup
bakonyi gombamártás Hungary A mushroom sauce from Bakony
bakudai Japan A type of pea used as a garnish for sashimi and salads. The pods are steeped in tepid tea to make them open and the seeds are removed and washed prior to use.
balabusky Eastern Europe A yeast-raised Ukrainian bread made from rye flour, wheat flour and sour cream (1:2:1). Water, sugar and yeast are used to form the slightly sticky dough which is mixed with caraway seeds, shaped into rolls, sprinkled with more caraway seeds, proved and baked at 200°C.
balacan Malaysia A strong-smelling dried paste made from small crustaceans. See also blachan
balachaung Burma Chopped garlic, spring onion and ginger root fried in oil until golden, reserved; finely chopped dried shrimps fried with turmeric in the same oil, mixed with the garlic, etc.; softened shrimp paste added and all cooked over a low heat to form a smelly but tasty concoction. Used as a side dish.
balachong South Asia A South Indian relish of minced prawns, fried with minced onion, mango and tomatoes or similar plus spices, then pounded with salt and vinegar to an acceptable taste and consistency. Also called balachow, balichow
balachow South Asia Balachong
balantier France Wild pomegranate
Balaton Hungary A semi-hard, scalded-curd, cows’ milk cheese with a buttery, aromatic flavoured paste with holes. Contains 42% water, 20% fat and 25% protein.
balcalhao di kismur South Asia A seafood salad from Goa made of salt cod soaked in diluted palm vinegar, flaked and mixed with fried sliced onions, green and red chillies, sweet green peppers, ginger, garlic and spices and finished with dried shrimp powder and lemon juice
baleron Poland A popular smoked pork sausage
balichow South Asia A South Indian relish of
minced prawns. See also balachong
balik Turkey Fish
ballach Ireland Wrasse, the fish
Ballater scones Scotland Flour, butter and buttermilk (8:1:5) with 1 dsp of salt, 1 dsp of bicarbonate of soda and 2 dsp of cream of tartar per kg of flour, dry ingredients mixed, butter rubbed in, and all brought together with the buttermilk. Formed into rounds by hand, cut in quarters, docked and baked at 220°C for 10 to 15 minutes. Eaten warm.
baller A food preparation implement consisting of half a hollow sphere with sharp edges on the end of a handle. Used for cutting out balls from melons, cucumbers, root vegetables, ice cream, cheese, cooked gizzards, etc. Made in various sizes.
ball garlic Bulb garlic
ballon France A boned joint of meat tied into a ball shape prior to cooking
balloon whisk The professional chef’s whisk which consists of about 12 teardrop-shaped pieces of stainless steel wire, the two ends of each secured around the circumference of a stout circular handle about 2 cm diameter by 15 cm long. The whole forms a 3 dimensional tear drop shape which fits easily the contours of a basin. They come in various sizes.
ballottine France 1. A roll of boned and stuffed poultry, meat or fish 2. Meat loaf
ballottine de volaille France A chicken boned from the inside, lined with pâté, stuffed with forcemeat made from the leg meat, cooked, cooled and coated with aspic jelly
Ballymaloe Ireland A wholemeal, yeast-raised bread, the yeast activated with treacle in place of sugar
balm Lemon balm
balmain bug Australia Sand lobster
balmoral loaf tin A corrugated cylindrical metal loaf tin somewhat like a bellows, which produces a ridged loaf or cake easily cut into slices. Also called ribbed loaf tin, toast rack tin
Balmoral shortbread Scotland Queen Victoria’s favourite shortbread made from flour, butter and sugar (3:2:1) pressed out very thin (4 mm) and cooked at 180°C for 30 minutes
Balmoral tripe Scotland Veal tripe cut in 8 cm squares, bacon slightly smaller laid over each square which is then peppered, rolled up and packed seam side down over bay leaves in a saucepan, seasoned and covered with chopped onions, parsley and veal stock. It is simmered for 2 hours until tender adding sliced mushrooms 10 minutes before the end. Finished with cream before serving.
balnamoon skink Ireland Chicken broth finished with egg yolks and milk and garnished with green peas, shredded lettuce and diced celeriac
baloney United States Bologna sausage
balsam apple Kantola
balsamella Italy Béchamel sauce
balsamic vinegar A highly fragrant, sweetish vinegar from Italy, made from concentrated grape juice and aged in wood for at least 10 years
Balsamita major Botanical name Costmary
balsam pear Bitter gourd
balti A style of cheap Indian fast food, which originated in Birmingham, UK, in the 1970s, consisting of marinated and spiced ingredients stir-fried and served in a karahi. Balti is Hindi for bucket, and there is no suggestion that there is an authentic Indian balti cooking style.
Baltic herring A small species of herring, Opisthonema oglinum, found in the Baltic Sea
balut Philippines Fertilized duck eggs containing an intact embryo duck. Thought to increase male potency when eaten.
Bambara groundnut West Africa One of the original peanuts from the Bambara region of Mali, probably taken to Africa by the Spaniards from Latin America via the Phillipines and Asia
bamboo Any large tropical woody grass of the genus Bambusa, normally used as a construction material. The leaves and shoots of some species are used in cooking.
bamboo fungus A very expensive fungus fruiting body, Dictyophora phalloidea, which grows in China on a certain kind of bamboo. It is light in colour, looks like a small lacy purse and has a musty earthy taste and crunchy texture. Also called staghorn fungus
bamboo leaf The blanched and softened leaves of certain species of bamboo used as a food wrapping for grilling, steaming, boiling, etc.
bamboo mustard cabbage See chuk gaai choy
bamboo shoots The immature shoots of the bamboo, used either fresh, salted, pickled, dried or canned in Chinese and Southeast Asian cooking. Fresh shoots must be parboiled to remove toxins. Dried shoots are the most tasty but require long soaking and cooking. Tinned are the most convenient.
bambú Italy, Spain Bamboo Bambusa Botanical name Bamboo Bambusa vulgaris Botanical name Cultivated
ba mee Thailand Egg noodle
bamee Malaysia A thin white noodle made from wheat flour
bami Netherlands A spicy dish of noodles with all or some of pork, shrimp, eggs, onions and
various vegetables. Brought from Indonesia.
bamieh Middle East Okra
bamiya Middle East Okra
bammy Caribbean A Jamaican bread made from cassava flour, soaked in milk or water then fried or steamed
bamya Egypt, North Africa A stew of minced lamb, okra, tomato, onion, green pepper, lemon juice, and herbs
banaan Netherlands Banana
bana caldo Italy Olive oil mixed with chopped anchovies, chopped garlic and seasoning simmered in butter for 10 minutes. Used as
banak Philippines Grey mullet
banán Hungary Banana
banana England, Italy, Japan, Portugal The fruit of a giant herb, genus Musa, (all sterile hybrids without exact species names, but sometimes named M.sapientum), grown in hot climates throughout the world. The individual fruits 7 – 24 cm long grow in bunches from a central stalk and are usually picked green for transportation and ripened to yellow prior to sale. The flesh is soft and cream coloured and when underripe a source of useful low-digestibility starch, said to reduce the chance of bowel cancer. The skin is thick and easily removed. Dessert bananas when ripe have a sugar content of 17 to 19%. Unripe bananas and some which would never reach a high sugar content are eaten as a staple food and known as plantain. After fruiting the stem of the plant dies back and new suckers grow from the base.
banana chilli A yellow and rather mild sweet chilli pepper
banana fig United States Sun-dried slices of banana which are dark and sticky and resemble figs
banana flour A flour made from plantains which have been dried and ground. Also called pisang starch, plantain flour
banana flower The fat red to purple pointed group of male flowers which forms in the initial stages at the tip of a bunch of bananas. Used like the globe artichoke in Indian and Southeast Asian cooking.
banana fritters See fruit fritters
banana heart The pith at the centre of the trunk of a banana plant. It is sliced and soaked in salted water for several hours and used in Burmese cooking. The sap must not be allowed to contact the clothes or body.
banana leaf The leaves of bananas sometimes used as disposable table cloths or plates in Indian and Southeast Asian restaurants or as a substitute for greaseproof paper when cooking en papillote
banana pepper United States A mild yellow-green pepper up to 10 cm long used in salads and as a stuffed vegetable
banana prawn A yellowish beige variety of king prawn, Penaeus merguiensis
bananas Foster United States A New Orleans speciality of fried bananas, spiced, sugared, flamed with rum and served with whipped cream
banana shoot The shoots which grow from the base of the banana plant are forced by excluding light and become long thick white spikes rather like asparagus. Cooked in hot ashes or baked.
banana split A longitudinally split banana filled with ice cream and finished with whipped cream and chopped nuts
banana squash A winter squash shaped like a banana
banane France Banana
Banane Germany Banana
banane des antilles France Plantain. Also
called banane plantain
banane plantain France Plantain
bananes baronnet France Bananas served with cream and kirsch
bananes Beauharnais France Bananas served with sugar, rum and macaroons
bananes pesées Caribbean A Haitian dish of green plantains soaked in salted water for an hour, drained, sautéed in oil until tender, then flattened with a fish slice or similar until half their original thickness and fried until golden brown and crisp on the outside. Served with sauce ti-malice.
Banbury cake England An oval-shaped Oxfordshire cake made from puff pastry filled with dried vine fruits, sugar, butter, spices, flour and rum, prior to baking, finished with an egg white and caster sugar glaze just before removing from the oven
banda Indonesia Yam bandal South Asia A rich cream cheese made
from cows’ or buffaloes’ milk bandeng Indonesia Bangus bangers England Cooked English sausages
(colloquial) bangers and mash England A simple meal of fried English sausages, mashed potatoes
and gravy (colloquial) bangkwang Malaysia Yam bean bangus A farmed round fish, Chanos chanos
and C. Salmoneus, which is very popular in the Phillipines and Indonesia. It grows up to
1.5 m and has a greenish grey skin and
delicate flesh. Also called milkfish banh cuon Vietnam Cellophane noodles banh hoi Vietnam Rice vermicelli banh mi Vietnam Bread banh pho Vietnam White rice noodles about 3
mm wide. They cook very quickly and are used with the popular Hanoi soup called pho. Also called nu tieu
banh phong tom Vietnam Prawn crackers banh trang Vietnam Dried thin and almost transparent pancakes made from cassava, water and salt. Moistened to soften before use in wrapping food prior to cooking as in
e.g. spring rolls. banh uot Vietnam Freshly made thin pancake wrappers similar to banh trang but made with a mixture of wheat, tapioca and corn flours
with peanut oil, water and salt banh xeo Vietnam Fried pancake banira Japan Vanilla banitza susu sirene Bulgaria A pie made of
layers of pastry interlayered with a mixture of egg, cheese and yoghurt bankebiff Norway Beef, browned in butter
and simmered in stock bankekød Denmark Stewed beef banket letter Netherlands Flaky pastry
(millefeuille) cakes filled with almond paste banku West Africa A Ghanaian staple made from a maize meal dough which has been allowed to ferment for 2 to 3 days and is then boiled with water for about 20 minutes to make a very stiff cooked porridge. This is formed into tennis-ball-sized portions for serving. Sometimes equal parts of maize meal and grated cassava root are used. bannock Scotland 1. A circular scone made from barley flour, oatmeal or barley meal and cooked on a griddle. Various types are produced for breakfast and high tea. 2. A biscuit resembling shortbread but containing chopped mixed peel and almonds. Also called Pithcaithly bannock bannock fluke Turbot
Banon France A small Provençal cream cheese sprinkled with savory, wrapped in vine leaves and presented on a slice of wood
banquet A formal meal with many courses served to a large gathering of people
bantam A small, more primitive type of domestic fowl or chicken usually with brightly coloured feathers producing small eggs
bantam eggs Eggs from the bantam fowl, sometimes used of the very small eggs first laid by chickens. See also pullet eggs
banteng A small cow-like animal from Southeast Asia and domesticated in Indonesia. The flesh is reputed to be very tasty.
bao China 1. Blanching and refreshing 2. Aubergine
baobab The fruit of the African baobab tree, Adansonia digitata. The fruit is large and pulpy. Also called monkey bread
bao zi China Steamed bread bun, sometimes stuffed
bap United Kingdom A small, flat round white bread with a soft crust and generally dusted with flour
baptist cake United States A deep-fried enriched yeast dough bun from New England. Also called hustler, holy poke, huff juff
bar 1. France Bass, the fish. Also called badèche, bézuche, cernier, loup de mer 2. England, France An establishment which serves drinks and light snacks 3. A unit of pressure; 1 bar roughly equals the pressure exerted by the atmosphere
bär Sweden Berry
bara bread Caribbean Split pea flour, plain flour and butter (4:2:1) with 8 teaspoons of baking powder per kg of combined flours, flavoured with cumin, turmeric, minced garlic and minced seeded chilli pepper and brought together with warm water to form a firm dough, rested, then rolled out to 3 cm thick and fried both sides. Eaten hot, usually as a sandwich with channa and a hot sauce. (NOTE: From Trinidad)
bara brith Wales A Welsh sweet bread made from a yeasted dough with caraway seeds and a high proportion of dried vine fruits soaked in tea (NOTE: Literally ‘speckled bread’.)
bara ceirch Wales The traditional UK oatcake but made with bacon fat. See also oatcake bara claddu Wales A simple cake made from plain flour, sugar, dried vine fruits and egg
(4:4:4:1) with a little baking powder and mixed spice. The dry ingredients are well mixed and brought together with the beaten egg and a little milk to a cake consistency, then baked in a buttered loaf tin at 160°C for about an hour. Served sliced with butter.
bara jheenga South Asia Lobster bara lawr Wales Laver bread baranina Russia Lamb bárányhús Hungary Lamb báránypaprikás Hungary Diced lamb fried in
lard with diced lean bacon, chopped onions and paprika then all simmered with water, tomato purée, thinly sliced sweet green peppers and seasoning until cooked and finished with sour cream. Served with rice, tarhonya or dumplings.
báránypörkölt Hungary Diced lamb fried in lard with chopped onions, diced bacon and paprika and all simmered in seasoned brown stock and tomato purée until cooked. Served with tarhonya.
bara sem South Asia 1. Jack bean 2. Sword bean
barbabietola Italy Beetroot
barbada Spain Brill
barbadine France Passion fruit
Barbados cherry Acerola
Barbados sugar Muscovado sugar
Barbarakraut Germany Land cress
Barbarea verna Botanical name Land cress
Barbarea vulgaris Botanical name Winter cress
barbari Central Asia A yeast-raised Iranian white bread mixed for 15 minutes, proved, shaped into rectangles 30 by 12 by 1 cm, proved again, indented along its length to look like a Lilo mattress and baked at 220°C for about 15 minutes
barbary duck A fleshy, well-flavoured, slightly gamey lean duck, Cairina moschata, with musky-flavoured flesh, originally from South America but now bred in France and elsewhere and very popular in Australia. It is slaughtered at up to 3 months old and should be cooked more slowly than duckling and barded and basted. Also called muscovy
barbary pear Prickly pear
Barbe Germany Barbel, the fish
barbeau France Barbel, the fish
barbecue 1. A method of cooking food similar to grilling, generally in the open air over smouldering charcoal or some other form of radiant heat. The meats are often treated with spice mixture. Also called barbeque 2. The equipment used to cook meat in this way (NOTE: Derived from the French barbe à queue ‘beard to tail’, referring to the barbecueing of the whole animal.)
barbecue sauce The general term for any spicy sauce served with barbecued food. e.g. a mixture of soya sauce, rice wine or vinegar, spring onions, garlic, chilli sauce and ground toasted sesame seeds or peanuts blended in a food processor.
barbecue spice mix A medium hot blend of ground spices rubbed on to meat before grilling, made from black peppercorns, celery seeds, cayenne pepper, dried thyme, dried marjoram, paprika, mustard powder, salt and soft brown sugar
barbeel Netherlands Barbel, the fish
barbeen Middle East A salad green rather like watercress
barbel The coarse European freshwater fish, Barbus barbus, related to the carp. Can grow up to 45 cm in length.
barbeque See barbecue
Barberey France A soft cheese made from partially skimmed cows’ milk formed into a disc (250 g), covered with wood ash and ripened for a month. Also called Troyes
barberon France The Provençal name for salsify
barberry The fruit of the bush Berberis vulgaris, generally used for preserves if at all
barbo Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain Barbel, the fish
barbot Eel pout
barbotine France Tansy
barbounia Greece Red mullet
barbue France Brill
barbue Brancas France Brill baked with
vegetables in a tomato sauce
Barcelona nut Hazelnut
barchetta Italy Barquette, a small boat-
bar clam See surf clam
bard, to To cover meat with thin layers of fat or fatty bacon to prevent it drying out during roasting whilst other parts of the meat are cooking. Often used to protect the breast meat of birds and chicken.
bardatte France Cabbage stuffed with hare
barde France A layer of fat or fatty bacon used to bard meat
bardé France Wrapped or covered in a thin solid sheet of fat or fatty bacon, used in roasting to protect parts from the heat
barder France To bard
barfi South Asia A sweet resembling fudge. See also burfi
barista South Asia Sliced onions fried until
crisp. Used to finish savoury dishes.
bark gor China Ginkgo nut
barley One of the oldest cultivated cereals,
Hordeum vulgare, with a seed of similar size
to rice. Not suitable on its own for making leavened bread since it contains little gluten. Sometimes used in soups (as an addition to broth), occasionally to make a flour or meal, but predominantly either as animal feed or for conversion to malt (by sprouting) for fermentation in the beer and spirit industries. See also pot barley, pearl barley
barley broth Scotland Scotch broth but made with a mutton stock
barley flakes Partially cooked barley, flattened and dried. Used as one constituent of muesli, also for puddings and toppings.
barley flour Ground barley used as a thickening agent, for making unleavened bread, or as a substitute for some of the wheat flour in leavened bread
barley meal Coarsely ground pot barley used to make a kind of porridge or gruel and bannocks
barley pudding Scotland A Lothian dish of barley cooked in the oven at 150°C with 6 to 7 times its weight of water for 2 hours, currants are added for the last 20 minutes. Served with sugar and cream.
barley sugar A transparent, caramelcoloured and lemon-flavoured brittle sweet now made from sugar and water, originally from sugar and barley water
barley syrup See malt
barley water A drink made from the water in which pearl barley has been cooked. Once
thought to have medicinal properties.
barm brack Ireland A sweet bread made from yeasted dough mixed with dried vine fruits and chopped candied peel, possibly previously soaked in tea to rehydrate, and caraway seeds. Popular at Christmas and Hallowe’en. Also called bairm breac
barm cake England A soft bread roll in the shape of a circle often split and filled for use as a sandwich
Bärme Germany Yeast (North Germany)
barnacle A cylindrical stalk-like crustacean, Pollicipes cornucopia, up to 15 cm long, which is found on sea-washed rocks around the Atlantic coast. The foot with which it attaches itself to the rock and the tough papery skin covered in small scales are discarded. May be eaten raw or cooked. Popular in Spain and Portugal. Also called
goose barnacle, goose-necked barnacle
barnacle goose Brent goose
Barnstaple fair pears England Large Comice pears, peeled with the stalk on, piquéed with blanched halved almonds, poached in red wine with sugar and cloves for 15 minutes and served with the strained reduced cooking liquor and clotted cream
barnyard millet A type of millet, Echinochloa crusgalli, grown mainly as a fodder crop in the east and now an escaped wild plant in the UK and the USA
baron d’agneau France Fillet end (top half) of a leg of lamb used for roasting
baron of beef England A large beef joint consisting of two sirloins, connected by the backbone. Roasted for celebratory occasions.
baron of lamb The saddle and two legs of lamb in one piece
barquette France 1. Small boat-shaped tartlet
2. The small tin in which a barquette is baked barquillo Spain Wafer barracouta Snoek
barracuda A slender round-bodied ferocious seawater game fish of the genus Sphyraena found in warm water worldwide. Barracudas are generally eaten at around 2.5 kg and have lean firm flesh. Very large Caribbean barracudas over 1 m long have poisonous flesh which causes joint pains, trembling and vomiting.
barralax Australia Gravlax made with barramundi fillets, cold cured and flavoured with a dusting of lemon myrtle instead of dill weed
barramundi, barramunda Australia The edible Australian lungfish, Lates calcarifer. Also called lungfish
barrel 1. A wooden cask with specially shaped wooden staves forming the sides which are held together with iron hoops which when knocked down from either end compress all the staves together to make the sides watertight. Used for wine, beer, salted herrings, olives and the like. 2. A liquid measure equivalent to 159 litres, 42 US gallons or 35 imperial gallons
barrel bread A cylindrical loaf baked in a ridged tin so that it can easily be cut into uniform slices. Also called crinkled musket, landlady’s loaf, lodger’s loaf, pistol, piston, rasp
barrinaire Italy Sand eel barrogog bis basela North Africa A lamb
stew with prunes
Barsch Germany 1. Perch 2. Bass
barszcz Poland A Polish version of borscht made from fermented sour beet juice, traditionally served on Easter day
barszcz zimny Poland Cold soup made from the juice of pickled beetroot and cucumbers, thickened with semolina, finished with egg
yolks and sour cream, seasoned, chilled and served with slices of hard-boiled egg
barya a jagnjetinom Balkans A lamb and okra casserole from Serbia
barzotte Italy Soft-boiled, as of eggs
basal mahshi Persian Gulf Stuffed onion made by making a radial slit from root to tip, boiling the onion and separating the layers. These are then stuffed as with cabbage rolls using a meat and rice filling and baked with a water and tamarind pulp mixture.
basal metabolic rate The rate at which the resting body uses energy. For the average healthy adult this is 1700 K cal per day equal to 7100 kJ per day.
bas de carré France The top part of the shoulder of veal, equivalent to scrag end of lamb
base 1. The chemical term for a substance which reacts with an acid to form a salt 2. The major component of a dish which is the main determinant of its properties as e.g. stock is the base of soups and sauces. Also called fond
Basella alba Botanical name Ceylon spinach
bashan Middle East A smoked cheese from Israel made with ewes’ and goats’ milk. The rind is a glossy red and the paste has a sharp flavour.
bashit Scotland Mashed, as in bashit neeps (colloquial)
basic cake mixture Flour, butter, caster sugar and eggs in the proportions by weight of 8:5:5:5 with 1 level teaspoon of baking powder per 8 oz of flour (16 g per kg flour)
basic foods Seven classes of food are considered necessary for a balanced daily diet: green and yellow vegetables, starchy tubers, fruits, milk products, meat including fish or eggs, cereals and fats and oils. Vegetarians would substitute pulses for the meat products.
basic soup A mirepoix of onions, leek and celery plus twice the quantity of the vegetable after which the soup is named, sweated in butter, flour added and cooked out without colour; a bouquet garni and white stock added; the soup simmered and skimmed for 1 hour; the bouquet garni removed; the soup liquidized, seasoned and consistency adjusted, creamed if required and garnished as appropriate. See also
basil A tender annual herb, Ocimum basilicum, with an aromatic flavour reminiscent of mint and cloves used in salads, pesto and Italian cooking, and added at the last minute to cooked dishes. See also bush basil, holy basil, lemon basil, hairy
basil, purple basil, kemangi. Also called sweet basil
basilic France Basil
basilico Italy Basil
Basilienkraut Germany Basil
basin A wide flattish dish
basket A steel mesh utensil (about 8 to 12 mm pitch) with a handle, which fits in a deep-fat fryer and is used to lower damp foods, especially potato chips, into the fat slowly so that the boiling off of the water does not cause the fat or oil to boil over. It is also used for blanching vegetables in boiling water.
Basler Leckerli Switzerland A Christmas biscuit containing candied peel, almonds, honey, hazelnuts, cinnamon and kirsch baked in relief-carved wooden moulds depicting traditional scenes. See also Tirggel, Züritirggel
basmati rice A dense thin long-grain rice with an aromatic and nutty flavour, more expensive than American long-grain rice, used in Indian cooking for biryani and pilau. Best boiled without salt for about 10 minutes, or in lots of boiling water for 8 minutes then drained, covered and finished on a very low heat for a further 10 minutes. (NOTE: The name means fragrant, and the rice is grown in the foothills of the Himalayas.)
basquaise, à la France In the Basque manner, i.e. with ham, tomatoes and red peppers
bass A prized silvery grey round non-oily fish, Dicentrarchus labrax, up to 1 m in length which lives in saltwater lakes, estuaries and around some European coasts. The flesh is white and is cooked in any way. Also called salmon dace, salmon bass, common bass
bassia fat South Asia A soft yellow oil extracted from the seeds of the Indian butter tree. See also mowra butter
bastani Iran Ice cream
bastard saffron Safflower
baste to To spoon melted fat over food during cooking either to prevent drying out or to aid heat transfer
bastilla North Africa Layers of crisp-fried warkha pastry interleaved in the savoury version with pigeon meat, chicken or fish, almonds, spices and lemon-flavoured eggs, or, in the sweet version, with a milky almond sauce to make a kind of pie. Both types are liberally dusted with icing sugar. It was introduced from Portugal by the Moors. Also called b’stilla, pastilla, bisteeya
basting brush A brush used to spread fat or other liquids over food prior to and during cooking
bastoncini Italy Small stick-shaped biscuits
batagur Malaysia A species of turtle now endangered due to excessive exploitation. Even though local consumption is forbidden by the Muslim religion, they have been
exported in quantity.
batakh South Asia Duck
batangas Philippines A type of mandarin orange. See also ponkan mandarin
bâtarde, sauce France Salted water thickened with a white roux then reheated with a liaison of egg yolks and cream and a little lemon juice, strained and about 30% of its weight in butter added just before service. Served with asparagus or poached fish. Also called beurre, sauce au
batata 1. Portugal Potato, usually firm waxy types 2. Spain Sweet potato
batata charp Middle East An Iraqi patty of duchesse potatoes surrounding a filling made from sweated chopped onion fried with garlic and minced meat until dry. The filling is then simmered with baharat, tomato concassée and chopped parsley, flattened into cakes, floured and fried on each side until brown. A fried vegetable filling may be
used instead of meat.
batata frita Portugal Potato chips
Batate Germany Sweet potato
batavia France 1. Batavian endive. Also called scarole 2. Curly lettuce, e.g. Webb’s
batavian endive A variety of winter endive, Cichorium endivia, with larger flatter leaves than true endive. Used as a salad green. Also called plain-leaved escarole
batch loaf United Kingdom A loaf which has been baked close to others on a tray so that the dough touches and partially joins. After baking they are split apart to reveal soft sides.
batelière, à la France In the boatman’s style,
i.e. garnished with some or all of fried eggs, mushrooms, button onions, and crayfish, or, with small pastry shells with a rich fish filling
Bath asparagus England The flowerhead and stem of the spiked star of Bethlehem plant, Ornithogalum pyrenaicum, which grows wild around Bath. It tastes rather like asparagus and is boiled or steamed.
Bath bun England A sweet, yeast-raised bun containing mixed peel and sultanas originating in Bath, Somerset; egg-washed and topped with coarse white sugar crystals before baking
Bath chap Pig’s cheek
Bath Oliver A plain flat biscuit (NOTE: It was invented by Dr Oliver of Bath in the 1700s, and at that time supposed to have slimming properties.)
batir Spain To whip or whisk
bâton 1. England, France A long baguette-type French loaf or bread roll tapering at either end and baked on a flat tray 2. A type of cut for root vegetables, roughly 6mm x 6mm x 25mm
bâton de manioc Central Africa Cassava tubers treated to remove cyanide compounds, processed to a smooth paste, wrapped in softened banana leaves in cylinders between 2 cm and 10 cm in diameter and 30 cm long, then steamed for between 4 and 8 hours. Eaten warm as the staple carbohydrate source with soups and stews. They will keep in their wrappings for several days. Also called bobolo, chikwangue, kwanga, mintuba, placali
bâtons royaux France Small patties of minced chicken and game
bat out, to To flatten pieces of raw meat with a cutlet bat and thus reduce cooking time batsoa Italy Pig’s trotters, panéed and deep-
fried. See also piedini di maiale alla piemontese
Battelmatt Austria, Italy, Switzerland A soft cooked-curd cheese made from cows’ milk with a springy tender texture and delicate taste and numerous small holes. The curd is pressed in variously-sized cylindrical moulds, salted in brine or dry salt and ripened for 3 to 4 months.
Battenberg A rectangular long oblong sponge made in two different colours arranged lengthwise in a 2x2 checkerboard pattern and covered all round with a marzipan coating
batter 1. A basic mixture of flour, milk and eggs with possible added flavourings, made either to pouring consistency for pancakes, drop scones, Yorkshire pudding, etc. or to coating (i.e. more viscous) consistency for fritters, cromesquis, bhajias, etc (NOTE: From the French battre, ‘to beat’.) 2. United States A general term used in North America for any soft mixture made from flour including cake and scone mixes, etc. as well as batter
batter, to To coat with batter
batter bread United States An unsweetened bread or pudding made with white cornmeal from dent corn raised with well-beaten eggs. Also called spoon bread (NOTE: From the southern states.)
batter dip United States Frying batter
battre France To whip, especially eggs battuto Italy A mixture of chopped onion, garlic, celery and herbs, sweated in oil and used as a base or flavouring ingredient for soups and stews batu giling Indonesia A granite slab and rolling pin used for grinding spices or crushing flavourings such as ginger, onions,
garlic, chillies, etc. Also called batu lesong batu lesong Indonesia, Malaysia Batu giling bau dau gok China A light coloured variety of
long bean baudroie France Monkfish bauern Germany Country-style Bauernbratwurst Switzerland A country-style
scalded sausage, made for grilling or frying Bauernbrot Germany Peasant bread, rye bread Bauernfrühstuck Germany Fried potatoes topped with scrambled eggs, ham and cucumber. Served at lunch. (NOTE: Literally ‘farmer’s or peasant’s breakfast’.) Bauernomelett Germany A bacon and onion filled omelette Bauernschmaus Austria A dish of sauerkraut, pork sausages and dumplings Bauernsuppe Germany A country soup of
beans, bacon and vegetables bauletti Italy Paupiettes of veal Baumé scale A complicated scale of density
originally based on brine and equivalent to the percentage by weight of salt in a salt and water solution at 15.5°C. Also used for sugar syrups but this has no simple relationship to sugar concentration. Written °B or °Bé. The relationship between °Bé and specific gravity is °Bé = 145 – (145/specific gravity), e.g. a 50% sugar solution, specific gravity 1.23, is 27°Bé.
Baumkuchen Germany A Christmas cake shaped like a tree and iced with chocolate to resemble bark
Baumwollöl Germany Cottonseed oil baunilha Portugal Vanilla Bavarian cream See bavarois Bavarian sausage Very well trimmed lean
pork and veal, finely minced with back fat, shallots and garlic, mixed with a little coriander, sugar, seasoning and saltpetre, packed in sheep casings, linked, air-dried and smoked until golden brown
bavarois France A dessert made from either a vanilla-flavoured egg custard or a fruit purée both containing gelatine, let down with sugar syrup, combined when beginning to thicken, with whipped cream and sugar. Cooled in a mould, which is either oiled or lined with caramel, demoulded when fully set and
decorated if required. Also called crème bavaroise, Bavarian cream
bavarois au marasquin France A cherry-flavoured bavarois
bavaroise France A hot drink made with milk, tea, eggs and sugar, flavoured with vanilla or liqueur (NOTE: Not to be confused with bavarois.)
bavaroise, sauce England, France Hollandaise sauce flavoured with grated horseradish
bavette 1. France Flank or skirt of beef 2. Italy Long thin strips of pasta noodles with an oval cross section, available fresh or dried
baveuse France Moist or runny. Used for the just runny top of an omelette which becomes the interior when it is folded.
bavosa Italy Soft in the centre, as of omelettes
and frittatas. See also baveuse
bavose Italy Blenny, the fish
bawal puteh Malaysia White pomfret, the fish
bawal putih Indonesia Pomfret, the fish
bawang bakung Malaysia Asian leek
bawang besar Malaysia Onion
bawang bombay Indonesia Onion
bawang daun Indonesia, Malaysia Spring
bawang merah Indonesia, Malaysia Shallots
bawang putih Indonesia, Malaysia Garlic
bawd Scotland Hare, rabbit (colloquial)
bawd bree Scotland A rich soup made from a jointed hare browned in lard with bacon and winter vegetables, simmered in water with minced shin beef, bay, cloves and peppercorns until all soft, strained, and the puréed vegetables and finely shredded hare meat returned. The soup is thickened without boiling using a little of the acidulated hare’s blood and finished with redcurrant jelly, lemon juice and port. Served with dumplings made with hare’s liver, onions and breadcrumbs.
ba-wel Burma Squid
bay An evergreen laurel-like shrub, Laurus nobilis, whose fresh or dried leaves are used for flavouring, especially in a bouquet garni, marinades, béchamel sauce, milk puddings
and fish. Also called sweet bay, laurel
bayam Indonesia, Malaysia Amaranth
bay boletus An edible fungus, Boletus badius, with a 5 to 15 cm diameter smooth brown cap and a short slender stem and with pores rather than gills under the cap. It grows profusely under spruce and pine trees and occasionally on the wood or pine cones.
bay bug Sand lobster
Bayerische Leberknödel Germany Liver dumplings made with raw chopped calves’
liver, sieved and mixed with egg, chopped bacon fat, onions, fried bread crumbs, seasoning and flour to stiffen, formed into tangerine-sized dumplings, poached and served with beurre noisette and sauerkraut
bayleaf See bay bay lobster Sand lobster bayonnaise, à la France In the Bayonne
style, i.e. containing Bayonne ham
Bayonne ham France A dry-cured lightly smoked ham similar to Parma and eaten raw
bay salt Salt produced by the natural solar evaporation of seawater, usually in large crystals of up to 5 mm. See also sea salt
bay scallop A small bivalve scallop, Argopecten irradians, up to 7.5 cm diameter with an off-white to black shell. Found off the east coast of North America, it has a very delicate flavour and can be eaten raw when fresh.
bay trout Australia See salmon 2 bazilik Russia Basil BBB See bleu-blanc Belge beadlet A sea anemone, Actinia equina, eaten
in France, generally brown to green in colour but occasionally red. Also called tomate de mer
beakie Australia Southern sea garfish
bean A leguminous plant characterized by a long pod containing a string of separated seeds. Both the young immature pods and seeds and fresh or dried mature seeds are used for a variety of culinary purposes. The principal vegetable varieties in Europe and North America are broad, dwarf French, climbing French and runner, but many others e.g. mung, soya, lima, etc. are in widespread use.
bean clam A small American clam of the genus Donax, similar to the wedge shell clam
bean curd A rather flavourless, textureless but nutritious coagulated soya bean protein made by treating boiled soya milk with various coagulants such as flaked sea salt (nigari), Epsom salts, vinegar, etc. and separating off the curd as for cheese. It can be soft and jelly-like or have the water content progressively reduced to form finally a cheese-like substance. It may be boiled, fried, etc. and is a most important source of first-class protein, minerals and vitamins in Chinese and Japanese cuisine and for vegans. Also called tofu, soya bean curd, bean custard, soya bean cake
bean curd brains A cream coloured lightly coagulated bean curd which has a soft lumpy appearance
bean curd cheese Bean curd fermented with brine or rice wine and spices and mixed with red food colouring and sometimes cereal extenders. It has a strong flavour of cheese and is served as a side dish or condiment, or used as flavouring. Also called Chinese cheese, pickled bean curd, red bean curd, soya bean cheese, fermented bean curd
bean curd noodles Thin strips of dried bean curd used in the same way as noodles but not normally fried after boiling. More nutritious than starch-based noodles. Also called soya noodles, soya vermicelli
bean curd sheets See bean curd skin
bean curd skin The skin which forms on the surface of hot soya bean milk if allowed to stand. It is lifted off and dried. When softened it is used for wrapping food prior to cooking. Also called bean curd sheets
bean curd sticks Bean curd skins rolled into stick-like quills before drying. After softening they are cut in pieces and used in cooked dishes as is or after deep-frying. Also called rolled bean curd, second bamboo
bean paste A variety of seasonings made from yellow or black dried soya beans, softened, fermented with an added culture, salted and dried or mixed with brine. Sometimes other grains or pulses are added. They keep well, are strongly flavoured and are used in Japanese, Chinese and Southeast Asian cuisines. The important ones are yellow bean sauce, black bean sauce, chilli bean paste, Hoisin sauce, hot black bean sauce, Dhwenjang, soya bean paste, sweet bean paste and miso.
bean sauce A bean paste let down with brine or oil to give a softer consistency
bean sprouts The young shoots of the mung bean, Phaseolus aureus, or adzuki bean, used as a vegetable in Chinese and Japanese cooking. Other seeds that may be sprouted include soya beans, lentils, wheat, rye, mustard seed and cress. Also called
green gram, moyashi, tu ya ts’ai
bean thread noodles Cellophane noodles
bean threads United States Cellophane noodles
bear 1. A large omnivorous animal of the Ursidae family. Black bears and polar bears are confined to the Northern Hemisphere and brown bears are found worldwide. The meat, which tastes like strong-flavoured beef, is very rare as the species is becoming endangered. 2. See bere
bearberry The red fruit of a plant from northern moors, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, similar to the cranberry and picked from the wild
beard The gills of an oyster or the fibrous threads by which mussels attach themselves to rocks
beard, to To remove the frilly gill parts or beards of certain shellfish such as oysters and the threads from mussels which attach them to the rocks
bear grass United States See yucca 2
béarnaise sauce England, France A hollandaise sauce, but with chopped tarragon stalks in the initial reduction and finished after straining with chopped tarragon and chervil. More egg yolks are used than for hollandaise to give a thicker sauce. Served warm with grilled meat and fish.
béarnaise tomatée, sauce France Choron, sauce
bearnässås Sweden See béarnaise sauce
bearss lime Persian lime
beat, to To incorporate air into a mixture and to intimately combine the ingredients by vigorous agitation with a spoon, whisk, fork or mechanical or electric mixer
beater A general term for any implement used for beating
Beaufort France A hard cooked-curd cows’ milk cheese from Haute Savoie with AOC status. It is ripened for 3 months and has a firm springy paste with a thin rind. It is similar to Gruyère but with a higher fat content and fruitier aroma. Also called Gruyère de Beaufort
Beaumont France A semi-hard cheese made with cows’ milk in the Haute Savoie using the same techniques as Toma. It has a springy texture without holes and is cast in 20-cmdiameter thin rounds.
bebek Indonesia Duck
becada amb cóc Catalonia Cooked woodcock in a bread roll
becado Spain Woodcock
bécasse France Woodcock
becasseau France Young woodcock
bécassine France Snipe
beccaccia Italy Woodcock
beccaccia alla norcina Italy Woodcock
stuffed with a mixture of its entrails, herbs
beccacino Italy Snipe
beccafico Italy Game bird
beccute Italy Maize flour cakes containing pine nuts and sultanas
béchamel, sauce England, France A basic white sauce made from a white roux and seasoned milk flavoured with an onion clouté using 100g of flour per litre. The onion is
removed and the sauce strained after simmering for at least 30 minutes. A very important base and often referred to simply as béchamel.
bêche-de-mer France Sea cucumber (NOTE: Literally ‘spade of the sea’.)
beckasin Sweden Snipe
bécsi heringsaláta Hungary Herring salad with vinegar
Beda Egypt A soft scalded-curd cheese made from buffalos’ or cows’ milk. The unbroken salted curd is drained in cheese cloth and may be eaten fresh or ripened for up to 3 months. Contains 53% water, 21% fat and 19% protein. Also called domiati
bedeu France The Provençal name for tripe
bee balm Bergamot
beechmast Beech nut
beech nut A small nut from the beech tree, genus Fagus and Nothofagus, similar in flavour to a hazelnut but not commonly used. A flavoursome oil can be extracted from them. Also called beechmast
beef The meat of the animal known as a cow (female) or bull (male) (NOTE: The Anglosaxon name ‘Ox’ is still used for some of what were once the less desirable parts e.g. oxtail, ox liver)
beef bourguignonne See boeuf à la bourguignonne
beefburger A mixture of lean minced beef, chopped onions and seasoning formed into a thin patty. Usually grilled and served as fast food on a soft white bread bun with a variety of garnishes. Also called hamburger
beef cervelat England A variety of smoked red-dyed sausages made with lean beef, possibly bullock heart, fat pork, seasoning and a little saltpetre, sometimes with ground spices. The mixture is left to cure then sometimes packed in beef middles, tied and smoked for 12 hours at 50°C, or, dried for eight days and cool-smoked for 6 days.
beef cotto United States A low-fat coarse cut beef salami containing whole peppercorns
beef dripping The fat collected after roasting beef or rendered from beef suet. A less flavoursome variety is made by boiling up beef scraps and separating off the fat which collects on the surface.
beef grading United States The standard government-recognized grades are prime, choice, good, standard and commercial. Prime is rarely available in retail markets. beef hare England Strips of chuck steak passed through seasoned flour flavoured with nutmeg, packed in an ovenproof dish
with celery seeds, topped with onion and parsnip, moistened with red wine, stood for 2 hours and baked with a tight fitting lid at 170°C until tender
beef herbs The principal herbs used with beef are basil, bay, caraway, chervil, lovage, marjoram, mint, oregano, parsley, peppermint, rosemary, sage, savory, tarragon and thyme
beef middles Beef casings for salami, Knackwurst, cervelat and similar sausages about 4.5 to 5.5 cm diameter taken from the middle of the beef intestine
beef olive A thin slice of topside of beef rolled around a savoury stuffing, tied and braised in the oven
beef runners Beef casings for black puddings, Bolognese sausage, etc. about
3.5 to 4.5 cm in diameter, made from the first part of the beef intestine
beef sausage Scotland A sausage of lean beef, bullock heart, suet, chopped onions and seasoning chopped very fine (cheaper varieties adulterated with bread and meal) packed into pig casings and possibly smoked
beefsteak United States Steak, as in beefsteak and kidney pie
beefsteak fungus United Kingdom A bright red edible fungus, Fistulina hepatica, shaped rather like a thick tongue which grows on trees. Treat as mushroom. Also called poor man’s beefsteak
beefsteak plant Shiso
beefsteak tagalog Philippines Trimmed rump steaks marinated with sliced onion, soya sauce, lime juice and pepper for 2 hours, removed, dried, fried in oil with sliced onion and bacon and served with a sauce made from the deglazed pan juices and the marinade accompanied by garlic-flavoured rice
beef Stroganoff Strips of fillet steak or other tender cut of beef, shallow-fried in butter and mixed with sweated chopped shallots, reduced white wine, cream, lemon juice and seasoning, possibly finished with soured cream
beef suet The hard granular fat interspersed with membranes from around the kidneys of cattle
beef tataki Australia Fillet steak or similar served tataki-style, i.e. seared briefly on all sides under a hot grill then thinly sliced and presented to show the brown exterior and
pink interior beef tea A clear consommé of beef beef tenderloin United States Fillet of beef
beef tomato A very large fleshy tomato up to 10 cm in diameter often stuffed as an individual dish
beef Wellington A part-roasted fillet of beef spread with duxelles and liver pâté, wrapped in puff pastry, egg-washed and baked in the oven. The meat and pastry should finish cooking simultaneously. Served sliced.
Beenleigh blue England A ewes’ milk cheese made in Devon similar to Roquefort
beer Fermented malt extract flavoured with hops, sometimes used as a cooking liquor
beer sausage Bierwurst
bees sting Bienenstich
beesting pudding Colostrum from the cow and sugar baked slowly in the oven
beestings The first milk (colostrum) from the cow after giving birth. It is very rich and creamy and is used for puddings and sweets. (NOTE: Also frozen to preserve it for use as a restorative for newly born lambs.)
beestings curd A curd made by mixing cows’ colostrum with fresh milk and water, heating to 37°C, cooking and straining
beeswax The wax excreted by bees to construct honeycomb. Used as a glazing agent in sugar and chocolate confectionery. See also E901
beet 1. The generic name for members of the Beta family including beetroot, Swiss chard, spinach beet and sugar beet, which latter is the main source of sugar in Europe 2. United States Beetroot
Beetensuppe Germany Borscht
beetroot A biennial plant, Beta vulgaris vulgaris, grown as an annual for the swollen root which grows at ground level. Most are deep red but there are pink and yellow varieties. The roots contain a high proportion of sugar and as the red colour easily leaches out they are boiled in their skins as a vegetable. They are also used for soup (borscht) and pickled in vinegar. The young leaves may be used as a vegetable.
beetroot consommé Grated beetroot, onion and carrot simmered with a bay leaf and chicken stock for 40 minutes, strained, simmered with egg white for 15 minutes to clarify, strained and finished with lemon juice and sour cream
beetroot red E162, a red food colouring extracted from beetroot. Also called betanin beetroot soup Shredded beetroot and onion sweated in butter, flour added and cooked out, stock added, simmered and skimmed for 30 minutes, seasoned, consistency adjusted and finished with lemon juice and
cream or sour cream
beet sugar Sugar produced from sugar beet. Chemically it is identical to cane sugar (both contain sucrose).
beetwortel Netherlands Beetroot
bef stroganov Russia Beef Stroganoff traditionally made with sliced onions sweated for at least 30 minutes with sliced mushrooms added towards the end, combined in the pan with sautéed strips of fillet steak, English mustard, sugar and sour cream, all warmed through and served with straw potatoes and chopped parsley
begendi Turkey A smooth paste made from a mixture of thick béchamel sauce and a purée of cooked aubergine flesh. Used as a starter.
begiessen Germany 1. To baste 2. To sprinkle with liquid
beg wat East Africa As doro wat, but made with red meat
beh Central Asia The Iranian name for quince
beid hamine Middle East Hard-boiled eggs, the shells coloured with onion skins or ground coffee. They are simmered for 5 to 6 hours in water with the colourant and are served as an appetizer with salt and ground cumin.
beid mahshi Middle East Hard-boiled eggs, halved lengthways; yolks mashed with finely chopped onion and parsley, olive oil, cinnamon and seasoning, made into balls and replaced in the egg whites; filled whites laid on lettuce leaves, sprinkled with paprika or chilli powder, dressed with vinaigrette or yoghurt sauce and garnished with chopped parsley
beignet France 1. Fritter, a food item coated in batter and deep-fried. Also called French fritter 2. A ball of yeast-raised sweetened dough or flavoured choux pastry, deep-fried and served hot with a dusting of sugar and possibly jam or fruit sauce. Rather like a doughnut. Also called French puff
beignet de fleurs France Flower fritters, e.g. of acacia
beignet soufflé France A light deep-fried sweet fritter. See also pet de nonne
Beijing cabbage Chinese leaves
Beijing duck Peking duck
beijing kao ya China Peking duck
Beijing pear Asian pear
Beilagen Germany Accompaniments to a
Bein Germany Leg; of an animal, etc.
Beinfleisch Austria Boiled beef
Beja Portugal A ewes’ milk cheese from the
Alentajo weighing about 2 kg. It can be eaten
fresh or after ripening into a semi-hard cheese for from 1 to 2 years.
bejel Spain Tub gurnard
Bekassine Germany Snipe
bekon Japan, Russia Bacon
bekutak Indonesia Cuttlefish
bel Nepal Wood apple
beladi Middle East The common orange
belan South Asia Rolling pin
belangah Malaysia A terracotta cooking pot similar to an Indian chatty. Also called
belarno Italy A hard, rich cheese
belegte Brote Germany Open sandwiches on rye bread
Belfast ham Ireland, Scotland A dry-salted ham smoked over peat. Also found on the West coast of Scotland.
Belfermière Luxembourg A semi-hard cows’ milk cheese cast in squat cylinders (1.8 kg). Similar to Port-Salut.
Belgian chicory A perennial dandelion-like plant, Cichorium intybus, with bitter green leaves. The conical roots are trimmed and have the leaves cut off 2 cm above the crown and are then forced to produce white, yellow-tipped, compact, leafy shoots up to 15 cm long by 5 cm diameter, known as chicons, which are in season from January to March. They can be cooked as a vegetable or eaten raw in salads. The roots have been used as a coffee substitute and when young can be boiled as a root vegetable. The flowers and seedlings of the unforced plant can be used in salads. Also called Witloof chicory, succory, Belgian endive, endive
Belgium endive United States Belgian chicory
beliashi Russia A shallow-fried pastry made with a wheat-flour unleavened dough containing a variety of fillings
belimbing Malaysia The fruit of a relative of the carambola, Averrhoa bilimbi, about 8 cm long, light green and acidic. Used for souring food. Also called sour finger carambola,
belimbing manis Indonesia Carambola
belimbing wuluh Indonesia Belimbing, the
belinjo Indonesia A small red fruit. See also melinjo
belle dijonnaise, à la France With blackcurrants
Belle-Hélène France Served with ice cream and chocolate sauce, as in pear Belle-Hélène
Bellelay France An alpine semi-hard unpasteurized cows’ milk cheese. See also Tête de Moine
belle meunière, fish Fish meunière dressed with one grilled mushroom, one slice of peeled tomato and one floured and shallow-fried soft herring roe
bellevue, à la France Coated in transparent aspic jelly (NOTE: Literally ‘in full view’.)
Bellos Spain A hard cheese made from ewes’ and/or goats’ milk with a strong pungent close-textured paste and a dry rind. Usually cast in smallish cylinders (700 g). Contains 27% water, 36% fat and 27% protein. Also called Queso de Los Bellos, Bellusco
bell pepper United States Sweet pepper
Bellusco Spain Bellos
belly fat Soft fat from the belly of a pig with specific uses in sausage, pâté and pastry
belly of pork See pork belly
belly pork See pork belly
belon France A particular size of oyster from Brittany
Bel Paese Italy A rich, mild, quick-ripened creamy cheese made on an industrial scale since 1906 from whole cows’ milk, weighing about 2.5 kg and coated with a yellow wax
rind (NOTE: Literally ‘beautiful country’.)
beluga caviar Russia The light grey caviar from the roe of the female beluga, the largest of the sturgeon family. Usually served as a hors d’oeuvre.
beluga sturgeon One of the largest fish, Acipenser huso or Huso huso, in the sturgeon family from the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea and the rivers that flow into them. It can live up to 100 years and weigh up to 1600 kg, but is normally caught much younger and produces up to 20 kg of caviar of the same name. (NOTE: Should not be confused with the beluga whale.)
beluge Iran Beluga caviar
Belval France A firm mild cheese from Picardy with a shiny rind
belyashi Russia A deep-fried meat pasty
bem passado Portugal Well done. Used e.g.
benachin West Africa A one-pot meal in which ingredients are added in order of cooking time but usually starting with onions and garlic fried in oil followed by water or stock then the ingredients which usually include meat or fish, vegetables, tomato paste, seasonings but always rice. Occasionally the rice is steamed in a colander rested over the simmering liquid in the pot and when cooked stirred into the stew.
Benalty pie Scotland Teviotdale pie ben cotta Italy Well done. Used of steaks.
benfri gädda Sweden Boneless pike. A whole pike, head on, cleaned but not scaled, boiled in salted water then allowed to cool before gently easing the flesh from the skin and bones. The flesh is ideal for filling vol-auvents when combined with a béchamel and/or velouté sauce. Often served with an egg or horseradish sauce.
Bengal gram South Asia A small variety of chick pea. See also channa 1
Bengal rice A small-grain white rice with a fine flavour from Bengal in the east of India
benishoga Japan Red-coloured wafer-thin slices of pickled ginger rhizome used as an accompaniment to Japanese dishes especially sushi. Also called gari, amazushoga
benløse fugler Norway Beef olives (paupiettes) stuffed with pork and onion and
served with a spiced gravy
benne seed Sesame seed
benniseed West Africa Sesame seed
benoil tree Drumstick pod
benoiton, à la France Fish served with a reduced red wine sauce flavoured with shallots
bento Japan Different cold foods served in a bento bako at lunchtime. Also called obento
bento bako Japan The partitioned lacquered lunch box used by Japanese office workers to hold their midday meal
bento box See bento bako bentonite See E558 bento no tomo Japan A trade name for a
seasoning made from a mixture of dried fish, salt, soya sauce, seaweed and monosodium glutamate, pounded or processed to a paste
ben tree Drumstick pod
benzoates Salts of benzoic acid used as food preservatives. Those used in the food industry are, sodium E211, potassium E212 and calcium benzoate E213.
benzoic acid A naturally occurring acid found in most berries and in large concentrations in gum benzoin, now made synthetically for use as the food preservative E210
berawecka France A spiced bread roll from Alsace, containing dried vine fruits and flavoured with kirsch. Also called bireweck
berbere A ground spice mix from Ethiopia, used in stews and in panés. Made from dry-fried deseeded red chillies, coriander seeds, cloves, green cardamom, ajowan, allspice, black peppercorns, fenugreek seeds, cinnamon and dry ginger.
berberecho Spain Cockle
berberetxo Catalonia Cockle
Berberis vulgaris Botanical name Barberry
berbigão Portugal 1. Cockle 2. Mussel
Bercy France With sauce Bercy or beurre Bercy
Bercy, fish White fish, shallow-poached in fish stock, white wine, lemon juice with chopped parsley and sweated chopped shallots. The cooking liquor is strained, mixed with fish velouté, and seasoned, its consistency is adjusted, then it is finished with butter, lightly whipped cream and a sabayon. The reserved and dried fish is coated with this sauce, glazed under the grill and garnished with chopped parsley. (NOTE: A popular example is filets de sole bercy.) Bercy, sauce England, France Chopped shallots sweated in butter, white wine and fish stock added and reduced, fish velouté added, seasoning and consistency adjusted and the sauce finished with butter and
Bercy butter See beurre Bercy
bere A type of primitive barley first recorded in 4000 BC, still grown in the Orkneys and said to be an acquired taste. Also called bear
bere bannock Scotland A brown round scone-like cake made in the Orkneys with the flour ground from bere
berenjena Spain Aubergine
Beresford pudding England A steamed pudding made from a Victoria sponge mixture flavoured with grated orange zest berffro cakes Wales Flour, butter and sugar
(4:2:1) made into a stiff biscuit mixture by rubbing in or melting and the dough rolled out and cut into rounds. Each round is marked with the impression of a scallop shell, the emblem of the pilgrims to the shrine of St James, and baked at 170°C until coloured. Also called James’ cakes, cacennau Iago (NOTE: Berffro is a shortened form of Aberffraw in Anglesey, where the cakes come from)
Berg Germany A hard, pale yellow mountain cheese made from full-fat cows’ milk resembling Emmental but cast in smaller rounds. Also called alp cheese, Alpenkäse, Alpine cheese, mountain cheese
Bergader Germany A soft blue-green veined cows’ milk cheese with a cracked but smooth strong-flavoured paste and a wrinkled light brown rind
bergamot 1. A citrus hybrid, probably of Seville orange and sweet lime, Citrus bergamia, used only for its highly perfumed rind oil which amongst other uses is sprayed on tea to produce Earl Grey 2. A perennial
lemon-scented herb, Monarda didyma, used in salads, summer drinks and with pork. Also called bee balm
Bergen bread Bread enriched with plant oestrogens obtained from linseed and soya oil. Said to reduce menopausal symptoms.
bergère, à la France In the shepherdess’ style, i.e. garnished with fried sliced mushrooms and straw potatoes
Bergkäse A generic name for many different types of cooked-curd, pressed semi-hard cows’ milk cheeses from the Alps such as Berg, Gruyère, Fontina, Montasio, Walliser and the like. Also called mountain cheese
Bergues France A soft cows’ milk cheese similar to Saint-Paulin made near Dunkirk. It has a dense supple paste with a thin washed rind covered in blue-black mould and is cast in thin rounds (2 kg).
berinjela Portugal Aubergine
berkoush North Africa Moroccan rice pudding made with milk
Berkswell lemon chicken England A young chicken, jointed and browned in a seasoned mixture of lemon juice and molten butter, put in a covered dish with chicken stock and baked at 160°C or simmered for an hour. The chicken is reserved and served with a sauce made from the thickened cooking liquor and extra chicken stock.
Berliner Germany A jam filled doughnut from Berlin (NOTE: Made unintentionally famous by President Kennedy who, when visiting Berlin and speaking near the Berlin Wall, said ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’ He should have said ‘Ich bin Berliner’ or ‘Ich komme aus Berlin’.)
Berliner Hühnerfrikasse Germany Diced chicken flesh, diced calf’s tongue, sweetbreads, prawns, sliced asparagus and diced mushrooms (8:2:2:2:2:1), all previously cooked, mixed with a chicken velouté with added egg yolks (2 per litre) and lemon juice, heated to boiling and served. The velouté is normally made with the chicken cooking liquor.
Berliner Luft Germany A light mousse of egg yolks, creamed with sugar and lemon juice, flavoured with lemon zest, mixed with softened gelatine leaves and strained; stiffly beaten egg whites folded in; all placed in a mould to set, demoulded and served with a border of raspberry syrup
Berliner Pfannküchen Germany A thick puffy pancake with jam
Berliner Riesenbratwurst Germany A very large Bratwurst
Berliner Rotwurst Germany A type of black pudding made with pig’s blood, coarsely chopped meat and diced bacon with salt and black pepper, coloured dark red
Berliner Torte Germany Short pastry flavoured with cinnamon and lemon zest, mixed with finely chopped hazelnuts and baked in 4 circles which are filled when cool with 3 layers of redcurrant jelly and covered with vanilla-flavoured fondant
berlingozzo Italy Cream cake Bermuda onion United States Spanish onion bernard-l’ermite France Hermit crab bernard-l’hermite France Hermit crab Berner Platte Switzerland A dish of smoked
pork ribs, beef, tongue or sausage, lean bacon, ham, salted tongue and roasted marrow bone arranged on a bed of sauerkraut or beans
berrichonne, à la France Garnished with cabbage, bacon, onions and chestnuts for large joints of meat
berro Spain Watercress
berry A small fruit with pulpy flesh enclosing one or more seeds or an assembly of small sacs of juice each enclosing one seed within it or on its surface
berry sugar United States Sugar finer than granulated similar to caster sugar
Bertholletia excelsa Botanical name Brazil nut tree
bertorella Spain Three-bearded rockling, the fish
berza Spain A pork stew made with chopped aromatic vegetables and garlic browned in olive oil, 5cm cubes of floured and browned pork, soaked haricot beans and chick peas; stock added and all simmered until almost cooked; French beans and sliced roasted sweet red peppers added and cooked 15 minutes; finally sliced black pudding and seasoning added for a further 10 minutes of
berza marina Spain Sea kale
besan South Asia Ground chick pea flour, more aromatic and less starchy than wheat flour, excellent for batter and for coating fish. Used extensively in Indian cookery. Also called besan flour, gram flour, bessan
besan flour See besan
beschuit Netherlands A well toasted dry rusk
beschuittaart Netherlands A cake made with rusks
besciamella Italy See béchamel, sauce
beskidzka Poland A very common hard
sausage made from pork and beef
bessan See besan
bessara North Africa A Moroccan dip made
from cooked broad beans and red sweet peppers, ground cumin seeds, oil and lemon juice, all processed to a smooth paste
best-before date Date mark used on packaged food which has a shelf life of 6 weeks to 3 months after packing (NOTE: Under UK regulations this date can be changed by the manufacturer after the first date has expired. Such relabelled foods tend to enter the market and discount shop trade.)
best-before-end date Date mark giving only the month and year. Used on packaged food which will stay in good condition for longer than 3 months (usually not more than 18 months). (NOTE: Under UK regulations this date can be changed by the manufacturer after the first date has expired. Such relabelled foods tend to enter the market and discount shop trade.)
best end of lamb The vertebrae and first six rib bones counting from the rear of the lamb, cut down the centre of the back bone. The ribs are shortened to about 10 cm. Usually skinned and chined and the ends of the ribs scraped before cooking.
best end of veal United Kingdom The ribs of the animal extending about half way down its side from the backbone and from the loin to the shoulder. Corresponds to the best end of lamb. Usually roasted, fried or grilled.
besugo Spain See bream 1
beta-apo-8’-carotenal (C30) An orange carotene compound extracted from fruit and vegetables used as a food colouring. See also E160(e) (NOTE: The more fat soluble ethyl ester, E160(f), is also available.)
betacyanin One of the red colours in beetroot, less susceptible to colour change than anthocyanin
beta-jio Japan A method of salting food by sprinkling it with salt for an hour then rinsing off the salt. This leaves the surface layer
lightly salted. Used for fatty fish.
betanin See beetroot red
betasuppe Norway Mutton broth
Beta vulgaris Cicla group Botanical name Swiss chard, spinach beet
Beta vulgaris maritima Botanical name Sea beet
Beta vulgaris vulgaris Botanical name Beetroot
betel leaf The leaf of the betel pepper, Piper betle, used in Indian cooking and as a wrapping for pan
betel nut The hard nut of a palm tree, Areca catechu, with stimulating properties, ground and mixed with lime and other spices and wrapped in a betel leaf to make pan. The green unripe nuts are known as chikni and are shelled and boiled before drying. The orange to scarlet ripe nuts are known as chali and are dried in the husk and shelled. Also called areca nut
beterraba Portugal Beetroot
Bethmale France A hard cows’ milk cheese from Touraine with a spicy flavour
Bethmännchen Germany A marzipan biscuit from Frankfurt
bette France 1. Chinese cabbage or Chinese leaves 2. Swiss chard
betterave rouge France Beetroot
beurre France Butter
beurre, au France Cooked in or served with
beurre, sauce au France Bâtarde, sauce
beurre à la meunière Nut-brown butter. See also beurre noisette
beurre à la polonaise France Butter cooked until nut brown, one quarter its weight of very fine fresh white breadcrumbs added and cooked until golden brown
beurre Bercy France White wine reduced by one half with chopped shallots, cooled, mixed with softened butter, diced, poached and drained bone marrow, chopped parsley, seasoning and lemon juice. Used as a garnish with steaks and chops.
beurre blanc France Reduced white wine and vinegar flavoured with shallots, strained, sufficient cold butter beaten in in stages over a low heat until the sauce is of coating consistency. Served warm with fish and
beurre Chivry France Ravigote butter
beurre Colbert France Beurre maître d’hôtel mixed with melted meat glaze and chopped tarragon
beurre composé France Compound butter
beurre d’ail France A compound butter made from equal quantities of blanched peeled cloves of garlic and butter, processed and passed through a sieve
beurre d’amandes France Almond butter beurre d’anchois France Anchovy butter beurre d’aveline France Hazelnut butter beurre de caviar Caviar butter beurre d’échalotes France A compound
butter made of equal quantities of chopped shallots and butter, the shallots blanched, refreshed and squeezed dry through a cloth, then all pounded together and sieved
beurre de crevettes France A compound butter made from equal quantities of cooked shrimps and butter, pounded together and sieved. Alternatively it can be made by pounding together butter and shrimp remains, shells, etc. and sieving.
beurre d’écrevisses France A compound butter made from the remains of crayfish cooked for some other purpose, pounded with an equal quantity of butter and sieved
beurre de hareng France Herring butter
beurre de laitance France A compound butter made with poached soft roes pounded with twice their weight in butter, flavoured with mustard and sieved
beurre de Montpellier France A mixture of blanched, refreshed and drained watercress, parsley, chervil, tarragon, chives and spinach leaves with blanched chopped shallots, gherkins, capers, garlic and anchovy fillets processed to a fine paste, mixed with three times its weight of butter, raw and hard-boiled egg yolks mixed in and one fifth the combined weight of olive oil whisked in, seasoned and finished with a little cayenne pepper. Used to coat fish for
beurre de moutarde France Mustard butter
beurre de noisettes France Hazelnut butter
beurre de paprika A compound butter made from softened butter mixed with chopped onions, which have been sweated in butter, and paprika powder, and all sieved
beurre de piments France A compound butter made from braised sweet red pepper pounded with twice its weight in butter and sieved
beurre de Provence France An emulsion sauce made with bread soaked in milk and crushed garlic. See also allioli
beurre de raifort France Horseradish butter beurre de saumon fumé France Smoked
beurre d’estragon France Tarragon butter
beurre de truffes France Truffle butter
beurre fondu France Butter and a small amount of water or wine, boiled until combined then strained through double muslin or a tammy cloth. Served hot with boiled fish and some vegetables. Also called melted butter sauce
beurre (à la) maître d’hôtel France A compound butter made with lemon juice, seasoning and finely chopped parsley. Formed into rolls, refrigerated and cut into 0.5-cm thick slices. Served with grilled meat and grilled or fried fish.
beurre manié France A well-kneaded mixture of equal quantities of flour and butter, small quantities of which are used to progressively thicken liquids and sauces
beurre marchand de vins France Red wine reduced with chopped shallots, seasoned, then mixed with a little melted meat glaze and softened butter equal in weight to the
original wine, lemon juice and chopped parsley. Used with grilled sirloin steaks.
beurre monté France Monter au beurre
beurre noir France Butter browned in the frying pan, passed through a fine strainer and mixed when lukewarm with a reduction of vinegar and coarsely ground pepper. This may be kept molten until used when fried chopped parsley and chopped capers are sprinkled over the food to be coated with the butter.
beurre noisette France Nut-brown butter prepared by melting butter over heat and adding lemon juice after it has melted and foamed and just before it burns, used with fish meunière. Also called beurre à la meunière
beurre printanier France A compound butter made from vegetables appropriate to the dish being garnished, cooked, pounded with an equal weight of butter and sieved
beurre ravigote France Ravigote butter
beurre vert France Ravigote butter
Beuschel Austria, Germany Stewed calves’ lungs with vinegar and sugar. Served with dumplings.
Beutelmelone Germany Melon
beyainatu East Africa A small portion of every dish on the menu (NOTE: Literally ‘of every type’.)
beyaz peynir Turkey A soft white freshly eaten cheese made from ewes’ milk, possibly mixed with goats’ milk. It may be ripened in brine.
bézuque France Bar, the fish
BG See bouquet garni
BHA E320, butylated hydroxyanisole, a controversial antioxidant allowed only for use in fats, oils and essential oils
bhaatmas Nepal Soya beans
bhagoni South Asia A tinned brass cooking pot. See also degchi
bhaji 1. See amaranth 1 2. See bhajia
bhajia An Indian vegetable fritter, usually onion, served as a starter or as an accompaniment to a meal. See also pakora. Also called bhaji
bharta South Asia Cooked and puréed,
bharti South Asia Barnyard millet
bhat Nepal Rice
bhatoora, bhatura South Asia A deep-fried
chapati. See also puri
bhedaa Nepal Lamb, sheep
bhel puri South Asia Puffed rice and peanuts mixed with cooked and dried lentils, chopped onion and coriander leaves. Served with a spicy sauce as a snack.
bhindi South Asia Okra
bhogar South Asia The process of basting meat in a casserole, either by shaking with a sideways and downward motion to cover the meat with the cooking juices, or by adding the cooking liquor to aromatized ghee in a separate pan, reducing it to the right consistency then adding it back to the meat bhojia South Asia Spiced stir-fried vegetables
bhoona 1. Indian frying which covers sautéing (sukha bhoona), pot roasting (dummed bhoona) and a type of braising in ghee in a closed container (ard bhoona) 2. another spelling of bhuna 2
bhoona pursindah South Asia Flattened deboned lamb or pork chops, marinaded in a mixture of yoghurt, minced chillies and sweet pepper, black pepper and ground cloves for 6 hours, then fried in butter which has been aromatized with cinnamon and sweet nim leaves, until cooked and dry
bhorji South Asia Scrambled. Used of eggs.
BHT Butylated hydroxytoluene, a controversial antioxidant allowed only for use in fats, oils and essential oils. See also E321
bhuna 1. another spelling of bhoona 1 2. A dry curry dish made with fried meat
bhuni khichhari South Asia A dry version of khichhari
bianchetti Italy Very tiny fish fry, so small that they are transparent. Generally mixed with egg and made into an omelette or used in soup. Also called gianchetti
bianco, in Italy Served with oil, melted butter and lemon juice. Used usually of fish.
bianco di Spagna Italy A large tender and commonly used white bean
bianco d’uovo Italy White of egg
bian dou China Beans
biarrotte, à la France In the Biarritz style, i.e.
garnished with ceps and potato cakes
bias cut An oblique cut or one at an angle to the grain of the food
bibb lettuce United States A variety of butterhead lettuce considered to be one of
biber Turkey Sweet peppers
biber dolmasi Turkey Sweet peppers stuffed with a mixture of chopped onions, raisins, pine nuts, cooked rice, herbs and seasoning, baked in the oven and served cold
bibliothèque internationale de gastronomie International Library of Gastronomy
bicarbonate of potash See E501
bicarbonate of soda Sodium bicarbonate, a mild alkali which gives off carbon dioxide when heated or mixed with acid. It is one of the ingredients of baking powder and also used as a mild cleansing agent. Also called sodium bicarbonate, baking soda. See also E500
bicchiere Italy A glass or tumbler, also a measuring cup
biefstuk Netherlands A cut of beef equivalent to sirloin or round steak (USA)
biefstuk van de haas Netherlands Filet mignon of beef
bien cuit France Well done; in the case of meat, all pinkness gone
Bienenstich Austria, Germany A yeasted pastry with an almond topping similar to an almond slice. Also called bee sting
bien padado Spain Well done. Used of meat, steak, etc.
Bier Germany Beer
bière France Beer
Bierkaltschale Germany Cold beer soup
Bierkäse Germany A rectangular-shaped sharp-tasting semi-hard cows’ milk cheese. See also Weisslacker
Bierplinsen Germany Cooked meat or sausages, coated in frying batter made with beer and deep-fried
Bierschinken Germany A Brühwurst made with 2 parts lean shoulder pork, 1 part belly pork, minced very fine with seasoning, spices and containing chunks of cooked ham fat and sometimes pistachio nuts. Usually eaten cold.
Biersuppe Germany Lager, boiled and thickened with a brown roux, flavoured with cinnamon stick, cardamom seeds and lemon zest plus salt and sugar, strained and served with croûtons
Bierwurst Germany A coarse-textured dried slicing sausage made from spiced pork or pork and beef, and garlic. Also called beer sausage (NOTE: Once made from ham marinated in beer; hence the name.)
Biestmilch Germany Beestings
biet Netherlands Beetroot
biete Italy Swiss chard
bietola Italy 1. Swiss chard 2. Spinach beet
bietola da coste Italy Spinach beet
bietoline Italy A leaf vegetable. See also erbette
bife Portugal Steak of beef, pork, lamb, fish,
biff Norway, Sweden Beef
biff à la Lindstrom Sweden Raw minced fillet steak mixed with diced cold boiled potatoes, double cream, diced pickled beetroot, grated onion, capers, egg yolk and seasoning, formed into egg-sized balls and shallow-fried
so as to remain pink in the middle. Served hot with fried onions.
biff med lök Sweden Fried rump steak served with fried onions and boiled potatoes
biffstek Sweden Beef steak
Bifidobacterium A bacterium used for the
fermentation of milk
Bifidobacterium plantarum One of the microorganisms used as starter culture for fermented milk products especially in Japan
bifschteks Russia Beef steak
bifteck France General name for steak suitable for frying or grilling
bifteck américaine Belgium Chopped raw beef with mayonnaise, seasoning and spices bifteck Bercy au père François France Beef
steak with a sauce based on red wine, shallots and parsley
bifteck haché France 1. Minced beef 2.
Hamburger or beefburger
bifteck tartare France Steak tartare
biftek Spain Beef steak. Also called bistec
bifuteki Japan Beef steak
biga Italy A starter for bread made from plain flour, water and fresh yeast (32:12:1) mixed to a slack dough and left to work for at least 12 hours
bigarade France Seville orange
bigarade, à la France Served with orange or an orange-based sauce using Seville oranges if available
bigarade, sauce France Sauce made from the cooking liquor or deglazed pan residues of duck with Seville orange, if available, and lemon juice and finished with a julienne of blanched lemon and orange zest. Also called
bigarro Spain Winkle
bigatan Philippines Ridged sand clam
bigoli Italy Thick home-made spaghetti from Venice
bigorneau France A small gastropod mollusc, Nassa mutabilis, similar in shape to a winkle and treated in the same way. Very common in Brittany.
bigos Poland A typical winter stew made from cabbage, sauerkraut, chopped pork, gammon, smoked sausage, dried mushrooms, onions, lard, tomato purée, garlic, paprika and seasoning, cooked in advance and reheated. Sometimes prunes, plum tomatoes and red wine are added.
bigoudine, à la France In the Bigouden style,
i.e. with baked slices of scrubbed potatoes with the skin left on (NOTE: Bigouden is a village in Pont d’Abbé, Brittany.)
bihun Indonesia, Malaysia Rice vermicelli
bijan Malaysia Sesame seed
bijane France A cold soup made from sweetened red wine thickened with fresh breadcrumbs
bijeni sir Balkans, Greece A soft cooked-curd cheese with holes from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It is made from ewes’ or a mixture of ewes’ and cows’ milk.
biji sawi Malaysia Black mustard seed
bikini Catalonia A toasted cheese and ham sandwich, similar to a croque-monsieur
biko Philippines A dessert made from glutinous rice, sugar and coconut milk. Served with latik.
biksemad Denmark Beef hash, served with a fried egg
bilberry The dark-blue-bloomed berry of a low-growing wild bush, Vaccinium myrtillus, that grows on acid moorland. Harvested with a large-toothed curved comb. Slightly acid and used for pies or jam. Also called whortleberry, huckleberry, blaeberry,
billeri Italy Lady’s smock
billy bi France A mussel soup made from fish stock, mussel liquor and a little cream, flavoured with lemon zest or lemon grass and garnished with shelled mussels
biltong South Africa Dried strips of game meat or beef which will keep for years. Tough and leathery, it requires cutting into very thin strips before eating raw or cooking. Venison makes the best biltong but beef is the most usual. Also called jerky, jerked beef, jerked meat (NOTE: Literally ‘bull tongue’.)
bind, to To bring together dry or crumbly ingredients with a binding agent such as egg, flour paste, thick sauces or even water, etc. so as to make a cohesive mass which can be shaped prior to, and which will hold its shape during, cooking
bindae duk Korea Fritters made with a mung bean flour batter
bindi South Asia Okra
bing cherry United States A round, plump red
to purple, and very juicy cherry
bing ji ling China Ice cream
bingleberry A variety of dewberry
bin tong China Lump sugar (3)
biocide The general name for any chemical substance which destroys microorganisms and other forms of life
biocoli Italy Toasted sweet bread
bioflavonoids A complex family of chemicals including rutin and hesperidin which are widely distributed in fresh raw fruits and vegetables. It is thought that they have protective effects on vitamin C stores in the body and are involved in the strength of capillaries. They have no known toxicity.
biotin A very stable vitamin necessary for yeast and bacterial reproduction. Its presence in bread dough is essential. Its absence, in an active form, in egg white is responsible for the preservation of the egg against bacterial attack. It is widely distributed in all animal and plant tissues, with high concentrations in yeast, liver and kidney. It is also synthesized by intestinal bacteria and easily absorbed in the gut. It is required for the metabolism of carbohydrates and has no known toxicity. Raw egg white taken in excessive quantities whilst under antibiotic treatment could lead to a deficiency state which would appear as skin disease. Currently this affects only a few babies and is easily cured. Also called vitamin H
biphenyl See E230, diphenyl
bird A feathered and winged animal, not necessarily having the ability to fly. Either domesticated e.g. chicken, duck, goose, turkey, guinea fowl, etc. or wild e.g. duck, pheasant, partridge, etc.
bird cherry United States A native cherry, Prunus pennsylvanica, used to make a jelly-type conserve. Also called pin cherry
birdseye chilli A small (max. 2 cm long) chilli from Thailand, blisteringly hot and varying in colour from green to red
bird’s nest 1. The nest of a small species of swallow found on the coasts of Southeast Asia. The birds, which consume a lot of seaweed, secrete a gelatinous saliva which they use to construct the nest. This is used to make a soup which is more renowned for its texture than its flavour but is regarded as a health food by the Chinese to prevent brittle bones in old age. There may be some scientific justification for this. 2. United States A nest made from raw straw potatoes deep-fried between nesting frying baskets
bird’s nest soup A delicately flavoured soup made by cooking cleaned birds’ nests in a sweet or savoury consommé
bireweck France A spiced bread roll from Alsace. See also berawecka
Birkhuhn Germany Grouse
Birne Germany Pear
Birnenbrot Germany A sweetened fruit loaf
biroldo Italy A Tuscan blood pudding containing pine nuts and raisins or cheese birthday cake An iced and decorated cake to celebrate a birthday. Often baked in special tins to give shapes appropriate to the occasion and recipient. Usually with as many candles as the age and some piped greeting.
biryani South Asia A vividly coloured and aromatic pilau-type dish of rice and fish or meat. The meat or fish, precooked with spices, is mixed with uncooked, parboiled or cooked rice previously fried with spices as for risotto, caramelized onions, and possibly almonds, and then steamed in a tightly sealed container. The colour is derived from saffron or turmeric. Spices and herbs are selected from parsley, bay, mint, lovage, coriander leaves, garlic, fresh ginger root, chillies, cardamom, cloves, coriander seed, peppercorns, cumin, fennel, anise, cinnamon or cayenne pepper. Vegetables incorporated include carrots, green peppers and onions. Additional ingredients include butter and yoghurt.
bis(e) France Wholemeal (flour or bread)
Bischofsbrot Germany A Christmas cake containing dried vine fruits, nuts and chocolate drops (NOTE: Literally ‘bishop’s bread’.)
biscocho Philippines Crumbled dried toast used for thickening sauces and stews
biscoito Portugal Biscuit
biscote Spain Rusk
biscotte France 1. Rusk 2. Melba toast
biscotti Italy 1. Biscuits 2. Rusks
biscotti da tè Italy 1. Tea cakes 2. Petits fours
biscotti di prato Italy A hard sweet biscuit containing almond pieces
biscuit 1. A crisp, dry, small, flat, baked, sweet or savoury cake (NOTE: Literally ‘twice cooked’. See biscuit production methods.) 2. United States An English scone. Also called hot biscuit 3. France Sponge cake
biscuit à la cuiller France Sponge finger
(UK), lady finger (USA)
biscuit crust pastry Flan pastry
biscuit cutter A light metal or plastic outline
shape used to cut individual biscuits from rolled-out dough. Also called cookie cutter
biscuit de Reims France A type of macaroon
biscuit press A large syringe with variously shaped attachments at the end remote from the plunger. It is filled with biscuit dough which is pressed out to form the various shapes. Also called cookie press
biscuit production methods The five methods are sugar batter, flour batter, blending, foaming and rubbing in. See under each name for method.
biscuit sec France Plain biscuit (UK), cookie (USA)
biscuit tortini United States A frozen dessert made with cream, eggs and crushed macaroons
biscuit turner A small broad spatula with an offset blade, used to lift and turn small items on the baking tray
bishara North Africa A thick purée of cooked beans from Morocco flavoured with cumin and paprika, used as a dip or thinned out as a soup
bishop’s cake United States A light sponge cake with raisins and almonds
bishop’s weed Ajowan
Biskotte Germany Langue de chat
biskvit Russia Sponge cake
bismalva Italy Marshmallow
Bismark filler United States A large plain nozzle used with a piping bag for filling pastries etc.
Bismark herrings Flat fillets of herring interspersed with sliced onion and marinated in spiced vinegar
bisque England, France A soup made from shellfish or crustaceans in a way similar to lobster sauce but using a white meat stock instead of fish stock, omitting the garlic and finishing with diced shellfish or crustacean flesh and cream
bisque de homard France A bisque, made either with live lobster, halved, cleaned and claws cracked, or, cooked lobster shell excluding the claws. Also called lobster bisque
bisquit tortoni Italy A frozen dessert of cream, nuts and fruit sprinkled with crushed macaroons
bistec Spain Beef steak
bistecca Italy Beef steak
bistecca alla pizzaiola Italy Beef steak with a sauce of sweet peppers, tomatoes and garlic flavoured with oregano and spices
bistecca fiorentina Italy Beef steak grilled over charcoal and served rare with a little olive oil
bistecchina Italy A thin steak
bisteeya A type of filled pastry. See also bastilla
bistro England, France A small restaurant, with a bar, serving snacks and full meals (NOTE: The word was taken over from Russian by Napoleon’s troops during the invasion of Russia. It means ‘quick’ and was used jocularly of the slow service in that
biswa tulsi South Asia Basil
bitki Russia See bitok 2
bitochki Russia Small meatballs, fried and served with a piquant sauce enriched with soured cream
bitok 1. France The French name for a Russian meat loaf served with soured cream
2. bitok (plural bitki) Russia A minced pork or beef patty with breadcrumbs and sweated chopped onions bound with egg, panéed, fried in chicken fat or lard and served with lingonberry or cranberry sauce or the pan residues deglazed with sour cream
bittara appa South Asia, Sri Lanka A popular breakfast food made from appa batter or string hoppers, cooked very slowly with a whole shelled egg in the centre
bitter almond The kernel of the nut of the bitter almond tree, Prunus dulcis var. amara, used for the production of almond essence and almond oil. Toxic if the kernel is consumed in quantity. Used occasionally as a flavouring in some classic European dishes. The oil is not available in the USA.
bitterballen Netherlands Minced ham bound with a thick white sauce containing gelatine. Formed into balls, panéed and deep-fried. Eaten as an appetizer. (NOTE: Probably derived from the old nautical term, bitter, meaning ‘the end of a cable’.)
bitter chocolate Chocolate containing 5 to 20% sugar used for baking and confectionery rather than for eating directly. Also called baking chocolate
bitter cucumber See bitter gourd
bitter gourd An Indian vegetable, Momordica charantia, found also in China and Southeast Asia, which looks like a small green warty cucumber. It is usually sliced, its seeds discarded and soaked in salt water to remove the bitter taste. It is usually braised or steamed and combined with strong flavours. It can be pickled, and in Indonesia it is eaten raw in salads. Also called balsam pear, bitter
cucumber, bitter melon
bitterkoekjes Netherlands Macaroons
bitter melon See bitter gourd
bitter orange See Seville orange
bittersweet Tasting both bitter and sweet at
the same time bitto Italy A hard cooked-curd cheese cast and pressed in cylinders weighing 15 to 25 kg. After moulding, the cheese is repeatedly dry-salted and then ripened and dried for 2 to 6 months for the table version and 2 to 3 years for the grating version. The paste of the young cheese has a buttery texture with a few holes and a delicate taste. It becomes denser and more crumbly with age. Used especially in polenta, polenta taragna and sciatti. bivalve Any shellfish of the mollusc family with two shells hinged together enclosing the animal. Examples are mussels, oysters, cockles, clams and scallops. biwa Japan Loquats
Bixa orellana Botanical name The plant which bears annatto seeds
bixin A golden yellow food colouring obtained from the seeds of achiote. See also annatto
bizcocho Spain 1. Biscuit 2. Sponge cake
bizcochos borrachos Spain Sponge cake dredged with sugar and cinnamon and splashed with wine
bjano sirene Bulgaria A soft ewes’ milk cheese cast like a small brick (1 kg). The salty, acid paste is dense and covered with a thin rind. Contains 50% water, 25% fat and 20% protein.
björnbär Sweden Blackberry
bjørnebær Norway Blackberry
blåbær Norway 1. Blueberry 2. Bilberry
blåbär Sweden Blueberry
blacan See blachan
blachan A strong-smelling dried paste from East Asia made from salted and fermented small crustaceans and sold in small blocks. Used for flavouring. Also called blacan, blakhan, kapi, terasi, balachan, trasi
black back salmon Australia See salmon 2
black bass United States A small freshwater fish of the genus Micropterus, with a firm delicate white flesh found in North American rivers. The skin must be removed before cooking to avoid off flavours.
black bean 1. A type of French bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, widely cultivated in South America and East Asia. The dried bean has a black skin and white flesh and can be used as kidney beans. It must be boiled vigorously for 15 minutes. Also called black kidney bean, Mexican black bean, Mexican bean 2. Fermented soya beans made by cooking, salting and fermenting until they become almost black. Used as flavouring in made up dishes or to produce various pastes and sauces. See also black bean sauce
black bean curd A dirty grey, spongy curd made from the tuber of a taro-like snake palm, Amorphophallus konjac, by peeling, pounding, boiling then precipitating the curd with lime. Can be flavoured or deep-frozen (snowed) to give it a different texture. Added to soups, braised dishes and the like. See also konnyaku. Also called devil’s taro, devils’ tongue
black bean sauce Black fermented soya beans flavoured with garlic and star anise and let down with brine. Used as flavouring, dressing or dip.
blackberry A dark red to black soft fruit, Rubus fruticosus, which grows on long rambling canes in late summer. The berries consist of a large number of individual sacs of juice each containing a seed and all gathered in an elongated sphere. Available wild or cultivated they are used for pies, jam or stewed fruit, often teamed with apples. Also called bramble
black bottom pie United States A custard pie with a layer of dark chocolate custard on the bottom
black bread Pumpernickel
black bream One of the seawater bream, Spondiyliosona cantharus, with an excellent flavour; found from the Mediterranean to the North Sea. Also called old wife. See also Australian black bream
black bun Scotland A rich, spiced, dark fruit cake encased in pastry and eaten in Scotland on New Year’s eve. Often well matured. Also called Scotch bun, Scotch
black butter See beurre noisette
black cap pudding England A pudding made from basic steamed pudding mixture, poured into a greased basin whose base is covered with currants or blackcurrant jam. When turned out it has a black cap. Served with a sweet jam or syrup sauce.
blackcock See black grouse
black cod A round bodied fish, Anoplopoma fimbria, from the North Pacific which has a grey-black to black upper surface and weighs about 2.5 kg. It is not a member of the cod family and has a rich oily flesh. Available fresh or preserved. Also called blue cod, Alaska black cod
black crowdie Scotland Crowdie cheese combined with cream and coated with oatmeal and crushed black pepper
black cumin A variety of cumin with a very dark seed and a sweeter smell than ordinary cumin, found in Northern India and Iran. Used in North Indian and Moghul cooking. Also called sweet cumin (NOTE: Sometimes the name is used incorrectly for nigella.)
blackcurrant The fruit of a low growing bush, Ribes nigrum, which looks like a small black grape. The berries can be combed off the stalks with a fork. They have a rich, slightly sour flavour and are used to flavour liqueurs, in pies, to make jam and occasionally to
make a sauce similar to redcurrant sauce.
black drum See sea drum
black duck United States A highly prized wild duck, Anas rupripes, shot for the table. The domesticated version is the Cayuga duck.
blackened United States A term used in Cajun cooking for searing meat or fish in a very hot cast iron skillet to give the aroma of barbecued or charcoal grilled meat or fish
black-eyed bean 1. See black-eyed pea 1 2. United Kingdom Cow pea
black-eyed pea 1. A legume, Vigna catjang, related to other species of the genus Vigna (cow pea and long bean) from South America but now grown also in India and Southeast Asia. The pods grow up to 60 cm long and the beans when mature are yellow-brown to red in colour with a dark eye and similar in size and and shape to a kidney bean. To confuse matters it is sometimes referred to as asparagus bean which is a completely different species. Also called black-eyed bean, catjang bean 2. United States Cow pea
black-eyed susan United States Cow pea
blackfish Australia A commercial fish from New South Wales available all the year round but particularly in autumn. Suitable for all types of cooking, it is easily skinned and deboned.
Black Forest cherry cake See Black Forest gateau
Black Forest gateau A layered chocolate sponge partially soaked in kirsch-flavoured sugar syrup, with whipped cream and black cherries between the layers, the whole decorated with whipped cream, cherries and grated chocolate or caraque. Also called
Black Forest cherry cake
Black Forest ham A smoked and air-dried ham from southern Germany with a strong flavour. Served with potato salad.
black forest mushroom See shiitake
black fungus Cloud ear fungus
black game See black grouse
black gram A legume, Phaseolus mungo, grown mainly for its dry seeds (the young pods can be eaten as a vegetable), found in India and the Caribbean. The plant and pods are very hairy and look somewhat like the dwarf French bean. The small seeds are black or dark green with a white interior and prominent white hilum. They require long boiling and are very important in Indian cooking. It is one of the most expensive pulses but widely used. The ground bean is used in idlis, dosas and poppadoms. Also called urd bean, urad dal, black lentil, mash, woolly pyrol, uluthan
black grouse A game bird, Lyrurus tetrix. Shooting season in the UK 20th August (1st of September in parts of the south) to the 10th of December. Hanging time 3 to 10 days. Drawn and trussed and roasted like chicken for about 1 hour. Sometimes called moorfowl, moorgame and moorcock in England adding to the confusion. Also called black game, blackcock, greyhen
black halibut Greenland halibut black kidney bean See black bean black-leg chicken A traditional French breed
of chicken with firm flesh, superior in quality to the normal roasting chicken. Needs slightly slower cooking.
black lentil See black gram
blacklip abalone One of the main species of abalone, Haliotis ruber, with a red corrugated shell. It lives in crevices in rocks and reefs. (NOTE: So called because of its black mantle.)
black lovage Alexanders
black Mike United States A meat and
vegetable stew (colloquial; Forestry workers)
black moss Hair vegetable
black mustard seed A strong, pungent variety of mustard, Brassica nigra, from Southern Europe and India not grown for international trade and only available locally. Used in curries.
black olive Olive
black pepper Made from whole green unripe berries of the vine, Piper nigrum, dried in the sun. Usually freshly ground, it has a hot pungent flavour. See also peppercorn
black PN A synthetic black food colouring. See also E151
black pomfret A greyish-brown skinned variety of pomfret with not as fine a flavour as white pomfret
black pots England A Cornish speciality of gerty meat pudding with added pig’s blood
black pudding United Kingdom Groats boiled in muslin until cooked, mixed with diced pork leaf or back fat, a little finely chopped onion, seasoning, herbs and spices and mancu. Pig’s blood is added to the warm mixture (roughly 2/3rds the dry weight of the groats), the whole thickened with fine oatmeal. Filled into beef runners or wide hog casings tied in smallish links, plaited and boiled gently for 20 minutes. Preservative is added to commercial varieties. The spices and herbs added vary according to region. See under Bury, North Staffordshire, Stretford, Yorkshire and Welsh blood pudding. See also Scottish black pudding. Also called blood pudding, blood sausage
black rice 1. A type of glutinous rice from Indonesia and the Phillipines. It resemble wild rice in appearance but is a true rice. Its nutty flavour is appreciated in puddings and cakes. 2. Mexico Rice cooked in the cooking liquor obtained after boiling black beans
black salsify Scorzonera
black sea bass A deep-bodied seawater game fish, Centropistes striatus, also caught commercially. It has a grey to black upper skin surmounted by a very sharp fin and weighs between 0.5 and 2 kg. It has firm white flesh and may be cooked in any way. Found in deep water off the eastern coast of the USA.
black sesame seeds A black coloured sesame seed used as a garnish in desserts and puddings and, when ground, in soup or to make gomasio
black soya bean A smaller variety of soya bean than the yellow. Served as a salad or, when puréed and sweetened, as a cake and bun filling.
blackstrap molasses The darkest variety of molasses being that black mixture of invert sugars and other compounds remaining after crystallization of raw sugar from sugar cane juice
black treacle A mixture of molasses and invert sugar syrup used as a general sweetener but particularly for treacle toffee and treacle tart
black tree fungus Cloud ear fungus
black trumpet Horn of plenty
black turnip A large black-skinned turnip from Italy with a sharp, pungent, white and crisp flesh
black vinegar A dark, mild and sweetish vinegar similar to balsamic vinegar but made from fermented glutinous rice or sorghum. Presumably made in a similar way. Commonly added to many dishes as a flavouring in north and central China.
black walnut United States A variety of walnut tree with black coloured walnuts
bladder cherry Chinese lantern
blade bone United Kingdom A large beef joint from the top of the forequarter between the ribs and the neck and clod. Usually boned and sold as blade steak or chuck steak.
blade mace The one-piece outer lacy covering, the aril, of a nutmeg. See also mace
blade of pork United Kingdom The shoulder blade and surrounding muscle. Can be roasted or boned out and roasted or cut up for braising or stewing.
blade steak United Kingdom Blade bone blaeberry Bilberry Blakeney fritters England Small balls of
dough made from flour, butter, sugar and egg yolk, put on a baking sheet and a hole pressed into the centre of each. After the fritters have been glazed and baked at 180°C for 30 minutes, jam is put in the hole.
blakhan South Asia A strong-smelling dried paste made from small crustaceans. See also blachan
blanc 1. France White 2. France A cooking liquor consisting of water, lemon juice, flour and salt 3. See blanc de poulet
blanc, au France White in colour e.g. chicken or veal, or cooked in white stock
blanc de poulet France White meat or breast of chicken
blanc de volaille France Breast of chicken
blanc d’oeuf France White of egg
blanch, to 1. To plunge items into boiling salted water or to bring to the boil in same and cook for 2 to 5 minutes, in order to part cook, retain colour and nutrients, to inactivate enzymes that cause changes in colour, flavour or nutritive properties during storage or, for a shorter time, to loosen tomato, almond and other skins prior to removing. Usually followed by refresh. 2. To partially cook chipped potatoes in the deep-fryer, in order to prevent discolouring and to improve the texture, also to have them prepared ready for quick cooking
blanchaille France Young fish, similar to whitebait, but of sardines with possibly a few anchovies. Cooked as whitebait.
blanched almonds Almond kernels with the skin removed
blanchir France To blanch or scald
blancmange United Kingdom A sweet, semisolid dessert made with milk, sugar, flavourings and colour, thickened with corn flour, poured into a mould and demoulded when set. Originally a medieval dish made with almonds. (NOTE: Literally ‘white eats’.)
blancmange mould same as jelly mould
blanco South America A cows’ milk cheese similar to Ricotta
blandade grönsaker Sweden A large white cauliflower cooked al dente and cored, placed at the centre of a dish, decoratively surrounded by small carrots, young beetroot, mangetout peas, spinach, petit pois and spring onions all cooked al dente plus hardboiled eggs, sliced tomatoes and sliced cucumber, all sprinkled with chopped parsley. Served with mousseline sauce or
blandad frukt Sweden Mixed fruit
blangah Malaysia A terracotta cooking pot. See also belangah
blanket tripe A smooth tripe from the first stomach of the cow or ox. Considered to be the finest. Also called plain tripe
blanquette France A white stew of meat cooked in stock with onions and mushrooms, the cooking liquor then made into a sauce with a liaison of egg yolks and cream
blanquette de veau France Veal stewed in a lemon-flavoured white sauce
Blarney Ireland A firm, semi-hard palecoloured mild cows’ milk cheese with a few scattered large holes which resembles the Danish Samsø. The yellow paste is enclosed in a red rind. Contains 39% water, 29% fat and 24% protein. Also called Irish Swiss cheese
blast-freeze, to To rapidly freeze food items
by subjecting then to a blast of air at –28°C
Blätterteigpastete Germany Vol-au-vent
blau Germany Very rare. Used of meat. See
Blaubeere Germany Blueberry
Blaufelchen Germany Pollan, the fish
blawn whiting Scotland Freshly caught whiting, cleaned and eyes removed, dipped in salt, which is immediately shaken off and the fish hung in a drying wind for 1 to 3 days depending on size, by passing string through the eye sockets. The fish are cooked by coating with molten butter and grilling on each side. Also called wind-blown whiting
blé France 1. Wheat 2. Corn
bleaching agent Any compound used to whiten flour or other food commodity, such as chlorine or chlorine dioxide
bleak A small freshwater fish of the carp family found in European rivers. Cooked like sprats.
bleeding bread Bread infested with Serratia marcescens, which causes red staining. In warm damp conditions this can occur overnight, and in medieval times there were reported cases of it being interpreted as a miracle and causing religious riots.
blended flour United States Two or more types of flour blended for making specific items, e.g. pretzels, cookies
blender 1. An electric machine consisting of a glass or plastic vessel with a fast rotating steel blade directly coupled to an electric motor below. This pulverizes, mixes, blends or emulsifies the contents of the vessel which can be wet or dry. 2. A hand-held electric machine with a fast rotating shrouded metal blade at the end of an extension on the motor, used for wet mixtures e.g. for making purées or emulsions such as mayonnaise. Also called liquidizer
blending method for biscuits A method of making biscuits by simply blending or mixing all the ingredients together, e.g. brandy snaps
blend to To mix into a homogeneous mass
blenny A small slimy fish found both in the sea and in rivers in Europe and North America, treated like whitebait
blé noir France Buckwheat flour
blette France Bette
bletted Very over-ripe, soft and almost disintegrating (fruit)
bleu France 1. Describes meat that is very underdone, the surface only being quickly browned 2. Describes cheese that is blue-veined because of penicillium moulds grown within the paste, usually along cracks or needle holes (NOTE: Literally ‘blue